Ingredients Influence Physical Characteristics Of Doughs


Lesson 7:Different Rheological Properties; Application In Bakery
And Confectionery

Ingredients Influence Physical Characteristics Of Doughs

Ingredients have been designed to enhance the mixing and machine-ability of dough and give more elasticity and strength. Combinations of these variables allow the baker to control the dough rheology. Understanding the science helps to optimize dough for easy processing and ensures good quality products.

Specific emulsifiers also called dough strengtheners or conditioners are useful in yeast-raised dough because of interactions with gluten proteins. They provide improved mixing tolerance, increased water absorption, better gas retention during fermentation, proofing and conveying, plus shorter proof times. Examples ofdough strengtheners are stearoyl lactylates, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides (DATEM), succinylated monoglycerides (SMG) and ethoxylated Dough conditioners like bromates, iodates, ascorbic acid, azodicarbonamide (ADA) and calcium peroxide are generally known as oxidants. They act on the gluten to increase its strength and produce more uniform and higher-volume finished products. Monoglycerides (EMG) which are used at levels as low as 0.25% to 0.50%.

Protein ingredients add strength and durability to dough, higher the level of protein in the dough, the greater the strength. Vital wheat gluten used in bread dough, is insoluble protein fraction extracted from wheat flour, contains 75% to 80% protein, its addition increases the protein content and absorption of flour and increases the dough tolerance.

Reducing agents such as L-cysteine, sorbic acid, and the sodium salts of sulfite, bisulfite and metabisulfite reduce mixing time and help develop more pliable, extensible doughs. Extensibility, strength and tolerance of bread doughs depend on flour quality, water absorption and mixing conditions.

A variety of enzymes are used as dough conditioners that control dough properties and enhance dough reactions e.g., proteases, xylanase, etc. in yeast-raised products.

Last modified: Tuesday, 6 December 2011, 5:52 AM