Method of seed production
Stages of seed production
- Tomato is a self pollinated crop, hence either three or four generation model could be adopted as below
- Breeder seed → Foundation Seed → Certified Seed
- Breeder seed → Foundation Seed I → Foundation Seed II →Certified Seed
- Breeder seed → Foundation Seed → (Multiplication of parental lines) Certified Seed (Production of F1 hybrids)
- Pusa Ruby, Solan Gola, Yaswant (A 2), Sioux, Marglobe, Naveen, Ptom 9301, Shalimar 1, Shalimar 2. Angurlata, Solan Bajr, Solan Sagun, Arka Vikas and Arka Saurbh.
- Roma (EC 13513), Rupali, MTH 15, Ptom 18, VL 1, VL 2, HS 101, HS 102, HS 110, Pusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Sheetal, Floradade, Arka Meghli, CO.1, CO.2, CO.3 (Marutham), PKM.1, Py1,
- COTH 1, 2 and 3 Pant Hybrid 2, Pant Hybrid 10, Kt 4. Pusa Hybrid l 4, Arka Shreshta, Arka Vardan, Arka Abhijit, Navell 1 &2 (Sandoz), Rupali, Sonali, MTH 6
- It is highly suitable both for kharif (May – June) and rabi season (November - December)
- Selection of suitable land for tomato seed production is important where the previous crop should not be the same variety to avoid the contamination due to volunteer plants.
- For Seed production of tomato, varieties require minimum of 50 M for foundation seed and 25 M for certified seed.
- For hybrid seed production, it requires minimum of 200 M for foundation (parental line increase) and 100 M for certified hybrid seeds.
i) Varietal seed production– 300 to 400 g/haii) F1 hybrid seed production Male parent 25 g/ha; Female parent 100 g/ha.Seed Treatment
- The seed required for one hectare are to be inoculated with Azosprillum.
- For this, the seeds should be first mixed with the required quantity of rice gruel and then with 150 g of Azosprillum after shade drying it can be used for sowing.
- Sow the seeds in raised nursery bed of 20 cm height, in rows of 5 cm gap and covered with sand.
- Eight and ten nursery beds will be sufficient to transplant in one acre.
- Apply 2 kg of DAP 10 days before pulling out of seedling.
- Transplanting should be done with the seedlings are 20 25 days old, preferably at evening time.
- It varies with varieties from 60 x 30cm to 60 x 45 cm and
- In hybrid seed production 90 x 60 cm for female parent and 60 x 45 cm for male parent.
Figure 2. Spacing and staking options for female and male linesManuring
- After thorough preparation of a field to fine tilth, apply 25 tons of FYM per ha.
- Apply 100 : 100: 100 Kg of NPK/ha of which, 50% of the N is applied as basal dressing and remaining 50% of N as top dressing in two split doses at just before flowering and fruit formation stages.
Specific field requirements
- The roguing should be done based on the plant characters (determinate / indeterminate), leaf, branching and spreading characters and also based on fruit size, shape and colour. The plants affected by early blight, leaf spot and mosaic (TMV) diseases should be removed from the seed production field.
Pest and disease management
|Off types – variety (max)
|Plants affected by seed borne diseases (max)
Fruit borer -Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (common for both)
- Simultaneously growing 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedlings @ 1:16 rows.
i. Setting up pheromone traps @ 12/ha.ii.Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.iii.Spraying of endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit or carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or Bacillus thuringiensis 2g/lit or quinalphos 2.5 ml/lit.iv. Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha release coinciding with flowering time and based on ETL. Serpentine leaf miner
For Helicoverpa armigera: H.a.NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha.
For Spodoptera litura: S.l. NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha. Providing poison bait with carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit.
- Spraying Neem Seed Kernel Extract 50 g/lit.
- Installation of yellow sticky traps to attract the adult.
- Spraying of dichlorvos 76 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or triazophos 40 EC 2 ml/lit or fish oil rosin soap 25 g/lit. or dimethoate 2 ml/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit along with wetting agent.
- Removing alternate weed host Abutilon indicum
- Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m at sowing and 1 kg a.i./ha in the main field one week after transplanting.
- Treating the seeds with antagonistic fungi Trichoderma viride at 4 g/kg seed along with pressmud at 5 kg/m2 for nematode disease complex
Damping off (nursery)
- Treating the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM Stagnation of water should be avoided. Drenching with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m.
- Spraying of Zineb or Mancozeb 2 g/lit.
Tomato spotted wilt virus
- Spraying systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Monocrotophos or Dimethoate at 2 ml/lit to kill the insect vector, whitefly.
- Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i./ha in nursery at sowing and second application at 1.25 kg a.i./ha 10 days after transplanting in mainfield and three sprays of triazophes 35 EC 1.5 ml/lit @ 25, 40, 55 days after transplanting.