Management systems refer to the organization structure for managing its processes –or activities-that transform inputs of resources into a product or service, which meet the organization’s objectives, such as satisfying the customer’s quality requirements, complying to regulations, or meeting environmental objectives .
Food quality can only be maintained if all activities /processes related to food production are subject to a systematic approach, i.e integrated into a management system. Since the beginning of the 1990s, QM systems have proved good as systematic approach for steering companies.
ISO 9000 family:
- ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies, at present comprising 140 members, one in each country.
- The object of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity.
- The results of ISO technical work are published as International Standards.
- ISO 9000 is for standardization for quality management and quality assurance with a main focus on finding and preventing nonconformities during production and supply process and preventing their recurring appearance.
The ISO 9000 family of international quality management standards and guidelines has earned a global reputation as a basis for establishing effective and efficient quality management systems.
The family of ISO 9000 standards is made up of four core standards:
- ISO 9000:2000 – Fundamentals and Vocabulary
- ISO 9001:2000 – Quality Management Systems – Requirements
- ISO 9004:2000 – Quality Management Systems – Guidelines for performance improvements
- ISO 19011: 2002 – Guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems auditing
ISO in India : Bureau of Indian standards represents (BIS)India in ISO. The Technical Committee (TC) number 176 (ISO/TC 176), and its Sub-committees of ISO are responsible for the development of ISO 9000 standards.
BIS has adopted the ISO 9000 standards and they are numbered as
- IS/ISO 9000:2000;
- IS/ISO 9001:2000;
- IS/ISO 9004:2000;
- IS/ISO 19011:2002.
These standards published by BIS are same as ISO 9000 standards. BIS also provides certification against IS/ISO 9001:2000 under its Management Systems Certification activity.
The system has detailed 20 requirements to be addressed and controlled:
- Management responsibility
- System for quality documentation management
- Contracts overhaul
- Design control
- Data and documentation control
- Purchase (materials, skills and services)
- Control of production and data provided by the customer
- Product identification and traceability
- Control of processing
- Inspection and tests
- Inspection, measuring, and test instruments
- Status of inspection and test procedures
- Control of non-conformable products
- Correction and prevention measures
- Processing, storage, packing, conservation and supply
- Quality assurance documentation archive
- Internal quality supervision
- Service and maintenance
- Statistical methods
ISO 14000 family:
- ISO 14000 is the general term used for ISO 14000 family of standards. ISO 14001:1996 `Environmental Management Systems – Specifications with Guidance for use’ is a standard published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
- ISO 14000 was adopted by BIS as IS/ISO 14001:1996.
- IS/ISO 14001:1996 is the exact replica of ISO 14001:1996.
- This standard provides for the framework for the Management Systems for an organization to meet its Environmental obligations reliably and consistently.
- IS/ISO 14001:1996 is the only certification standard in the IS/ISO 14000 family.
- IS/ISO 14001 is a requirements standard. It contains a set of requirements to define the operation of the Environmental Management System. Since the requirements are expressed in a general form, it has the flexibility to be applied to any organization.
ISO 22000 family:
- ISO 22000, Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain, was first published in 2005.
The ISO 22000 family has following standards:
- ISO 22000:2005, Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain
- ISO 15161:2001, Guidelines on the application of ISO 9001:2000 for the food and drink industry
- ISO/TS 22002-1:2009, Prerequisite programmes on food safety – Part 1: Food manufacturing
- ISO/TS 22003:2007, Food safety management systems – Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of food safety management system
- ISO/TS 22004:2005, Food safety management systems – Guidance on the application of ISO 22000:2005
- ISO 22005:2007, Traceability in the feed and food chain – General principles and basic requirements for system design and implementation.
- ISO 22006:2009, Quality management systems – Guidelines for the application of ISO 9001:2008 to crop production,
ISO 22000 was the first in a new family of standards related to food safety:
- ISO 22000:2005 specifies requirements for a food safety management system where an organization in the food chain needs to demonstrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption.
- It is applicable to all organizations, regardless of size, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain and want to implement systems that consistently provide safe products. The means of meeting any requirements of ISO 22000:2005 can be accomplished through the use of internal and/or external resources.
- The standard provides international harmonization in the field of food safety standards, offering a tool to implement HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) throughout the food supply chain.
- The goal of ISO 22000 is to control, and reduce to an acceptable level, any safety hazards identified for the end products delivered to the next step of the food chain.
The standard combines the following generally-recognized key elements