Low-dose applications, using less than 0.1 kGy, are effective against sprouting of infesting insects. Doses of 0.2 to 1 kGy kill infesting insects. Pasteurizing doses of 1 to 3 kGy kill populations of microbes, and are effective against Salmonella, Campylobacteria, and parasitic liver flukes. Such doses destroy pathogenic microorganisms that might be present in milk and delay spoilage by significantly reducing the number of microbes responsible for spoilage. In Europe, irradiated milk has been used for years and is very popular because before opening it can be stored safely at room temperature. Sterilizing doses of 25 to 50 kGy decrease the number of nonsporing pathogenic organisms. Dairy products (cheeses) and citrus crops proved not to be good candidates for irradiation.