The genesis of rural development
Started: F.L. Brayne in Gurgaon district of Punjab state in 1920.
Objectives:* Increasing farm yields, stopping overspending in social functions.
* Improving health standards and home improvement and women welfare.
Activities: Irrigation, a forestation, composting, cattle improvement, women’s education and discouragement of heavy spending on social function etc., Short comings: Use of authority, untrained field workers discontinuity of work and limited planning.
Started: Spencer hatch in then Travancore state in 1921.
Objectives: Rural reconstruction to bring about complete upward development towards more abundant life for rural people spiritually mentally, physically, socially and economically through self-help and expert counsel.
Methods: Counselling farmers on economy and self-help, demonstrations, working through trained leaders, developing village organizations and rural surveys.
Activities: Agriculture, cottage industries, Community programmes, Bee-Keeping, poultry farming etc.,
Good points: Training of staff, comprehensive planning, starting with existing conditions and low financial load.
Weak points: Lack of government backing and lack of continuity of contacts with villages, religious standing of the institution.
Started: it was started by Gandhiji in 1933.
Objectives: Upliftment of under privileged people and village regeneration.
Activities: Organizing training centre for cottage industries, communal harmony, prohibition/removal of untouchability.
Limitations: High personal and moral standards which were difficult to achieve by common people.
Started: Albert Mayor in 1948 in Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.
Objectives: ? To improve farm production and social development
? To see how quickly the results can be achieved in an average situation.
? To see how these results could be helpful in the areas
Activities: Included were increasing farm yields, soil conservation animal husbandry, village sanitation. The village level workers were trained and appointed.
Short comings of the past attempts: Each of the past attempts had some good points and some limitations. However the cumulative experience of these attempts have been very helpful in designing community development programme in India.
Some of the important short-comings of the past attempts may be summarised as follows:
• The attempts were mostly initiated by individuals inspired by humanitation considerations.
• The attempts were mostly isolated, uneven and discontinuous.
• Government backing and financial support were not forth coming in sufficient measure.
• Staff employed was inadequate, inexperienced and untrained.
• The objectives were not very clear and the programmes suffered in implementation.
• Proper planning, programming and implementation were lacking and sometimes unbalanced.
• Parallel programs of supplies, services, guidance and super vision were not developed.
• Evaluation and research were lacking, proper methods and skills were neither employed nor recognised the lead of them.
• Involvement of local people in thinking, planning and executing village development was wanting.
• Co-ordination of other development departments was very limited.
Started: It was started by S. K. Dey at Punjab in 1947-48.
Objectives: To develop a new township to rehabilitate displaced persons from west Pakistan. The new township was built in a barren land by refugees self help and government’s assistance under the leadership of S. K. Dey. The township had school, farm, training centre, dairy poultry, piggery, press, garment factory, soap factory etc.
Last modified: Wednesday, 11 January 2012, 9:24 AM