Module 15. Functioning pattern of Indian dairying

Lesson 28

28.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the socioeconomic and geographical features of Indian Dairy Industry. It describes the various benefits obtained by milk producer through the profession of dairying.

28.2 Dairy Profession

The Profession of dairying covers three main activities namely production, processing and marketing. Socio-Economic and geographic feature of Indian Dairying broadly covers all the milk producers, handling and processing of milk, transportation and marketing of milk & milk products. It also covers all the institutions and organizations right from milk producer to the final consumer.

The Dairy Industry includes / or is formed of

(i) The traditional sector of milk production, processing and marketing which includes

- Producer to consumer
- Producer to trader to consumer
- Producer to milk collector to private trader (small dairy) to consumer.

(ii) Government and Private Dairies: Producer to dairies to consumers.
(iii) Co-operative dairies: Producer to milk union through village milk co-operative societies and finally to consumers through milk marketing federation.

28.3 Constraints Related to Milk Production

The low productivity of Indigenous breeds, limits the milk improvement programmes. There is shortage of quality dairy animals and the supply of such animals is less as compared to demand. There is inadequate feed & fodder resources which come in the way of rapid growth of milk production. High rate of morality and morbidity (reduction in production) because of diseases cause heavy economy losses. Statistics about livestock are inadequate and there is delay in publications of livestock statistics.

In India, milk production is undertaken as mixed farming along with agriculture. Small and marginal farmers/milch animal holders can be considered as poor. They have limited resources and are unable to feed the animal (i.e. they are unable to provide balanced feed to their animals) Milk Producers are scattered throughout the country in villages.

In India milk production is done by individual milk producers who generally keep 2 to 3 milch cattle. Mainly milch animals are reared in the rural areas and large quantity of milk comes from rural areas. Mainly milk production is obtained from cows, buffaloes and in negligible amount from goats. On an average majority of the farmers and landless laborers (live stock holders) keep one cow / buffalo, one or two young stock. Male calf is reared for replacement of bullocks and female calves for replacement of cows. From religious view point milch animals are not slaughtered in our country.

There are nomadic cattle breeders who own and breed cattle (especially cow). They have 25/50 to 500 heads of cattle. There would be young stock, cows and bullocks. They supply male young stock and bullocks to the farmers and occasionally sell cows.

28.4 Geographical Distribution of Dairy

The country is divided into four zones/ regions for the purpose of dairying viz northern, western, and southern and Central & Eastern regions. In these regions, following state is covered.

Northern: Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh

Western: Gujarat, Goa, Maharashtra, Dadra Nagar Haveli

Southern: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, and Pondicherry

Central & Eastern: Andaman & Nicobar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Sikkim, Tripura and west Bengal.

28.5 Role of Animal Husbandry/Dairying in Indian Economy

India is an agricultural country. Agriculture & animal husbandry/ dairy are mutually dependent and are inseparable in Indian conditions where mixed farming is practiced since centuries. According to one observation, agriculture is backbone of India and Animal Husbandry is backbone of agriculture. Agriculture is the main occupation for livelihood for larger number of rural population and is a way of life rather then a business. Out of the total production from agriculture, many commodities are exported and these exports earn valuable foreign exchange, which is utilized for importing Technology, Petroleum Products, capital goods and other things needed for the economic development of the country. Main exports from animal husbandry sectors are hides & skins leather goods, wool, etc.

The working animals provide the energy in the form of agricultural operations, transportation and as pack animals (pack animals: load carriers e.g. Donkey). According to one estimate about 64% of energy in agriculture is provided by livestock (particularly bullocks), 10% by mechanization and rest 26% is manual by human beings.

1 bullock = 1/2 H. P. and
Pair of bullock = 1 H. P.

About 1200 crore working hours per year are provided by bullocks. The dung and urine in the form of farm yard manure is supplied to the agriculture which helps in maintaining the fertility of the soil.

About 1200 million tonnes of cow dung is produced in a year of which about 585 million tonnes is used for fuel, 215 million ton as manure and rest remain unutilized and wasted. The manufacture of biogas out of cow dung is increasing in India which supplies fuel in the form of biogas and electricity to the society. The left over slurry of biogas can be used for mannuring. The biogas as a livestock product is used as cooking gas and light (electricity) which will satisfy energy requirement and save use of petroleum products such as kerosene, coal and wood coal. Livestock is converting the residue of agriculture considered as waste not needed by human beings. Animals are using this residue and providing various products needed by mankind in the form of milk, meat, eggs etc. Animals are supplying proteins which are essential for men. Milk is considered as a complete food for children. The livestock management provides employment and income to the rural people and helps in solving the problem of unemployment and poverty.

Dairy farming occupies a prominent & significant position among various animal husbandry programmes. According to one estimate, out of the total income obtained from livestock, 64.5 percent is derived from milk and milk products, 9.7 percent from cattle manure, 7.9 percent from meat & meat product, 2.5 percent from hides & skins, 1.1 percent from hair and wool, 2.4 percent from egg & poultry, 0.1 percent from bones, 2.1 percent from increment in stock. It is realized that promotion of dairying contributes towards better health & creates substantial employment opportunities. When properly organized, dairying becomes an effective instrument to achieve social & economic justice.

28.6 Impact of Dairying on Milk Producers

Dairying in the form of milk co-operatives are organized by milk producers in the rural areas. This set up provides number of benefits to milk producers.

(i) Economic Benefits: Co-operative societies provide assured market of milk to milk producers at remunerative price. It provides regular timely payment of milk. It also provides direct employment to few persons of the village as regular employees of village milk co-operative society at village level. In the same manner it also provides employment to other persons at union and federation level.

(ii) Technical Benefits: The milk producers are made aware of the improved animal management practices in the field of breeding, feeding and disease control of the milch animals. This also helps in giving economic benefits in the form of increased milk production. The members become aware about the health and hygiene of the animals and importance of nutrition in the food habits. On the same lines then awareness about health of family members is also created. The members also become aware about the modern dairy industry by seeing the dairy plants operations; cattle feed plant's operation etc.

(iii) Social Benefits: The caste and class discrimination is also reduced as the members have to work in unity, meet frequently in the meeting and meet daily for supplying milk to the society by standing in one queue. This have removed class barrier in the society. The method of working of co-operative has benefitted the rural people in knowing the organization and working of co-operative institutions. This has indirectly helped in running of the village panchayats and keeping alive the democratic principles which has a perennial effect in maintaining democracy in the working of democratic institutions.

(iv) Other benefit: The working of dairy industry on co-operative lines has changed the social & economic life of milk producers and the rural people. This has given indirect benefits in other fields also. The milk co-operative societies also provide money/funds for the development of some of the amenities in village like drinking water, roads etc.

Last modified: Wednesday, 10 October 2012, 4:49 AM