Lesson 28. SOCIOECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF INDIAN DAIRYING
SOCIOECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF INDIAN DAIRYING
This chapter describes the socioeconomic and geographical features of Indian Dairy Industry. It describes the various benefits obtained by milk producer through the profession of dairying.
28.2 Dairy Profession
The Profession of dairying covers three main activities namely production, processing and marketing. Socio-Economic and geographic feature of Indian Dairying broadly covers all the milk producers, handling and processing of milk, transportation and marketing of milk & milk products. It also covers all the institutions and organizations right from milk producer to the final consumer.
The Dairy Industry includes / or is formed of
(i) The traditional sector of milk production, processing and marketing which includes
- Producer to consumer
- Producer to trader to consumer
- Producer to milk collector to private trader (small dairy) to consumer.
(iii) Co-operative dairies: Producer to milk union through village milk co-operative societies and finally to consumers through milk marketing federation.
28.3 Constraints Related to Milk Production
The low productivity of Indigenous breeds, limits the milk improvement programmes. There is shortage of quality dairy animals and the supply of such animals is less as compared to demand. There is inadequate feed & fodder resources which come in the way of rapid growth of milk production. High rate of morality and morbidity (reduction in production) because of diseases cause heavy economy losses. Statistics about livestock are inadequate and there is delay in publications of livestock statistics.
In India, milk production is undertaken as mixed farming along with agriculture. Small and marginal farmers/milch animal holders can be considered as poor. They have limited resources and are unable to feed the animal (i.e. they are unable to provide balanced feed to their animals) Milk Producers are scattered throughout the country in villages.
In India milk production is done by individual milk producers who generally keep 2 to 3 milch cattle. Mainly milch animals are reared in the rural areas and large quantity of milk comes from rural areas. Mainly milk production is obtained from cows, buffaloes and in negligible amount from goats. On an average majority of the farmers and landless laborers (live stock holders) keep one cow / buffalo, one or two young stock. Male calf is reared for replacement of bullocks and female calves for replacement of cows. From religious view point milch animals are not slaughtered in our country.
There are nomadic cattle breeders who own and breed cattle (especially cow). They have 25/50 to 500 heads of cattle. There would be young stock, cows and bullocks. They supply male young stock and bullocks to the farmers and occasionally sell cows.28.4 Geographical Distribution of Dairy
The country is divided into four zones/ regions for the purpose of dairying viz northern, western, and southern and Central & Eastern regions. In these regions, following state is covered.
Western: Gujarat, Goa, Maharashtra, Dadra Nagar Haveli
Southern: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, and Pondicherry
Central & Eastern: Andaman & Nicobar, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Sikkim, Tripura and west Bengal.
28.5 Role of Animal Husbandry/Dairying in Indian Economy
Pair of bullock = 1 H. P.
28.6 Impact of Dairying on Milk Producers
Dairying in the form of milk co-operatives are organized by milk producers in the rural areas. This set up provides number of benefits to milk producers.
(ii) Technical Benefits: The milk producers are made aware of the improved animal management practices in the field of breeding, feeding and disease control of the milch animals. This also helps in giving economic benefits in the form of increased milk production. The members become aware about the health and hygiene of the animals and importance of nutrition in the food habits. On the same lines then awareness about health of family members is also created. The members also become aware about the modern dairy industry by seeing the dairy plants operations; cattle feed plant's operation etc.
(iii) Social Benefits: The caste and class discrimination is also reduced as the members have to work in unity, meet frequently in the meeting and meet daily for supplying milk to the society by standing in one queue. This have removed class barrier in the society. The method of working of co-operative has benefitted the rural people in knowing the organization and working of co-operative institutions. This has indirectly helped in running of the village panchayats and keeping alive the democratic principles which has a perennial effect in maintaining democracy in the working of democratic institutions.
(iv) Other benefit: The working of dairy industry on co-operative lines has changed the social & economic life of milk producers and the rural people. This has given indirect benefits in other fields also. The milk co-operative societies also provide money/funds for the development of some of the amenities in village like drinking water, roads etc.