Lesson 6. DAIRY INGREDIENTS IN ICE CREAM
DAIRY INGREDIENTS IN ICE CREAM
Ice cream is made utilizing both dairy as well as non-dairy food ingredients. Each type of ingredient has its own significance in ice cream. There are several fat and SNF sources that can be utilized in preparing the ice cream mix. However, the properties of ice cream mix may change depending on the composition and heat treatment that the milk solids had undergone in preparing such dairy ingredient. The role played by milk fat and milk SNF is detailed hereunder.
6.2 Milk Fat
Imparts a characteristics richness and mellows the flavour of ice cream. It tends to retard the rate of whipping. Lecithin contained in milk fat has important contribution to the flavour and tactual qualities of ice cream. It contributes to smoothness of texture and contributes to body and melting resistance of the product. It does not lower the Freezing point (FP) of mix.
High fat content may limit consumption by increasing the calorific value and cost; and satisfies appetite more readily.
6.3 Milk SNF
It is high in food value, inexpensive and has a role in enhancing its palatability.
MSNF increases viscosity and resistance to melting, but also lowers the F.P. Lactose adds slightly to the sweet taste and minerals tend to have a slightly salty taste. Proteins help to make ice cream more compact and smooth.
The amount of MSNF generally varies inversely with the fat content of the mix and ranges from 7.5-8.0% in an 18% fat ice cream to 14.0% in a 4% fat ice milk mix. Indian PFA regulation does not permit less than 10.7% SNF by specifying a minimum of 3.5% protein content. The limiting factor for MSNF is occurrence of ‘sandiness’ defect in ice cream. As a thumb rule, the MSNF should not be more than 15.6-18.5% of the TS in the mix; based on the turnover (slow or rapid).
6.5 Sources of Solids-Not-Fat
Table 6.2 Sources of milk solids not fat in ice cream
6.6 Special Commercial Products
- Sodium caseinates: Dehydrated product may be used at 0.5-1.0% by weight of mix. It is advantageous in improving the whipping properties of mix and improves the texture of ice cream. However, it may produce slight undesirable flavour in ice cream.
- Low-lactose milk powder: It may be used in high solids ice cream either to replace a portion of the regular milk solids or to supplement the MSNF without the occurrence of sandiness during storage. Dehydrated low-lactose product may be used at the rate of 10-12% of MSNF in ice cream.
- Whey powder: In most mixes, whey powder maybe used at 25.0% of the MSNF or 3.0% of the total mix weight. It can lead to improved body and whipping quality at a reduced cost.