Module 1. Communication process

Lesson 3


3.1  Introduction

3.2  Model given by Aristotle (385-322 B.C.)

Mention about the importance of COMMUNICATION (SPOKEN WORDS) in the OLD TESTAMENT (of Bible).

COURT-ROOM SPEAKING (i.e. legal public speaking) in GREECE. (Greek citizens also had to be their own lawyers!)

3.3  MODEL given by LASSWELL (1948)


3.4 Model given by SHANNON AND WEAVER (1949)

According to them, “Nature of the Communication Process: Communication will be used, here, in a very broad sense to include all the procedures by which one mind may affect another’s. This, of course, involves not only written and oral speech, but also MUSIC, the PICTORIAL ARTS, the THEATRE, the BALLET, and in fact all Human Behaviour”.

3.4.1 NOISE

The label for any distortion that interferes with the transmission of a signal from the source to the destination.

e.g. a) Sound / Static on a RADIO / TELEPHONE

       b) Image / Picture distortion on T.V.

       c) Rain-soaked pages of a newspaper

The Receiver is a sort of inverse transmitter, changing the transmitted signal back into message, and handing this message on to the destination.

e.g. When I talk to YOU; my brain is the information source, your brain is the destination; my VOCAL system is the transmitter, and your EAR is receiver. Transmitter changes this message into the signal, which is actually sent over the Communication channel from the Transmitter to the Receiver.

3.5  MODEL given by Schramm (1954)

SOURCE = An individual (speaking / writing/ Drawing/ Gesturing)

                   = Communication organization (Radio station / T.V. station / Publishing house)

DESTINATION= An individual (Listing / Watching /Reading)

                            =  A GROUP ( or audience /football crowd)

3.6  Berlo’s Model (1960)

Basic elements of this model are source, message, channel and receiver. According to this model, sources encode messages and send it through channel and then receiver decodes the message. Thus commonality is achieved between source and receiver.

3.7  LEAGAN’S Model (1963)