Forms of Learning Disabilities

Children With Developmental Challenges 3(2+1)

Lesson 28 : Children Specific Learning Disabilities

Forms of Learning Disabilities

  1. Visual Perception Disability: Children might have difficulty with subtle differences in position or in relationships. A child might reverse letters like “s” for “e” or “E” for “3” or reverse words like “saw” for “was.” He or she might confuse “d” and “b” and “p’ and “q.” A “3” might be rotated to look like an “in.” This confusion with spatial positioning might show up in written work, copying designs, or in doing tasks in which the eyes have to cue the hands as to what to do (i.e., visual motor tasks).
    Visual perceptual problem for example, when reading a page the child might skip words or jump lines. If a desk or table is cluttered he or she might have difficulty focusing on the appropriate task. Some children have trouble with depth perception and judging distances. The child might bump into things or fall off a chair. He or she might knock over a glass or container because the distance is misjudged and the hand gets there too soon. A final form of visual perceptual disabilities relates to doing tasks such as eye and hand coordination, like catching a ball, doing a puzzle, or using a hammer. The child will have difficulty with catching, hitting, kicking a ball or jumping rope.

  2. Auditory Perception Disabilities: Some children have difficulty distinguishing slight differences in sounds. The child might appear to misunderstand what others are saying and, thus, respond incorrectly. Children might have difficulty with auditory comprehension. If there is background noise the child may not listen when others/ teacher is speaking. They may be distracted by the background rather than listening to your words.

  3. Sequencing Disabilities: The child has difficulty telling or writing a story; the sequence of thoughts or events is all mixed up; he or she may go from the middle to the end then to the start. Teacher may write number 32 on the board, but the child copies it as 23. Spelling errors may be noted; all the letters of that word may be there, but in the wrong sequence.

  4. Abstraction Disabilities: A child with this disability will have difficulty knowing meanings to words or phrases. The child might have difficulty with the difference between the words, “the dog” and “your dog.” In a language exercise by reading a story about a policeman a teacher may discuss the policemen in the neighborhood. This child has difficulty going from the specific policeman in the story to the concept of policemen in general.

  5. Language Disabilities: There are two types of oral language - spontaneous language (we initiate a conversation) and demand language (someone asks a question). With spontaneous language one can organize thoughts and find the words before their spoken; with demand language one does all this as one speaks. Some children have a demand language disability. What is confusing is that when he or she speaks (spontaneous language) it sounds normal. When the same child is asked a question then they may talk aimlessly or have trouble finding the right words.

  6. Motor Disabilities: A child with gross motor disability may be clumsy, stumble, have trouble with walking, running; climbing, etc. Children with fine motor disability may have trouble in writing, holding, painting; drawing etc. This child may have poor handwriting. The child may have a thought but has trouble writing it down on paper at the same rate.

Terms used

  • Aphasia: Inability to communicate
  • Dysphaisa: Difficulty to communicate
  • Alexia: Inability to read
  • Dyslexia: Difficulty to read
  • Agraphia: Inability to write
  • Dysgraphia: Difficulty to write
  • Aprexia: Inability to perform motor activities
  • Dysprexia: Difficulty to perform motor functioning
  • Acalculia: Inability to do arithmetic calculations
  • Dyscalculia: Difficulty in arithmetic calculations
Last modified: Saturday, 14 April 2012, 1:28 PM