The term psychological disorder means a mental disorder or illness that interferes with the way a person behaves, interacts with others, and functions in daily life. Psychiatric disorders are also sometimes known as mental health disorders or mental health illnesses. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, classifies psychiatric disorders.
The latest version, DSM-IV-TR, lists the following types/ categories of Psychological / mental disorders:
- Adjustment disorders
- Anxiety disorders: Anxiety disorders can disrupt a person’s ability to concentrate and cause hyperventilation, a racing heart, chest pains, dizziness, panic, and extreme fear. Schizophrenia can cause a person to experience, at some point in the illness, delusions and hallucinations.
- Delirium, dementia and other cognitive disorders
- Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence, such as learning disorders or communication disorders
- Dissociative disorders
- Eating disorders
- Factitious disorders
- Impulse-control disorders
- Mental disorders due to a general medical condition
- Mood disorders
- Other conditions of clinical importance
- Personality disorders
- Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
- Sexual and gender identity disorders
- Sleep disorders
- Somatoform disorders
- Substance-related disorders
- Depression: it is a major disorder that can begin at any age. Major depression may be characterized by a depressed mood most of each day, a lack of pleasure in most activities, thoughts of suicide, insomnia and feelings of worthlessness or guilt.
- Bipolar disorder: It (manic-depressive disorder) causes a person to experience periods of mania and depression. In the manic phase, a person might experience inflated self-esteem and a decreased need to sleep.
- Panic disorder: it is characterized by repeated, unexpected panic attacks, as well as fear of experiencing another episode. Panic disorder may also be accompanied by agoraphobia, which is a fear of being in places where escape or help would be difficult in the event of a panic attack. If you have agoraphobia, you are likely to avoid public places such as shopping malls or confined spaces such as an airplane.
- Phobia: It is an unrealistic or exaggerated fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that in reality presents little to no danger. Common phobias include fear of animals such as snakes and spiders, fear of flying, and fear of heights. In the case of a severe phobia, you might go to extreme lengths to avoid the thing you fear. Unfortunately, avoidance only strengthens the phobia.