D & D

D & D

    The Genesis of D & D:-
    • Agroforestry in itself is described as ‘a new name for an old practice’.
    • The D&D methodology is an adaptation of old or existing methodologies to the specific needs and conditions of agroforestry.
    • Several methodologies have been developed for holistic evaluation and analysis of land use systems. The most significant among these are:
      • Farming Systems Research /Extension (FSR/E)
      • Land Evaluation methodology
    • Each of these two was developed with specific objectives and conditions. For example, the FSR/E was developed in response to the failures or inadequacies of the traditional transfer-of-technology extension methods that were initiated to disseminate the researcher-driven green revolution technologies to resource-poor, small scale farmers.
    • FSR/E was designed to be interdisciplinary and holistic as well as demanding farmer involvement from the outset The D&D arose, in the words of J.B. Raintree, who directed its development at ICRAF, “Out of the demands of the agroforestry situation. It gives a special focus on agroforestry related constraints and opportunities within existing land use systems and highlights agroforestry potentials that might be overlooked by other methodologies. For example, for most FSR/E practitioners, the trees within the farming system tend to be invisible”.
    What is D & D?
    Diagnosis and design:-
    D&D is a methodology for the diagnosis of land management problems and design of agroforestry solutions. It was developed by ICRAF to assist agroforestry researchers and development fieldworkers to plan and implement effective research and development projects.
    The Key Features of the D & D:-
    A. Flexibility:
    D&D is a flexible discovery procedure which can be adapted to fit the needs and resources of different users.
    B. Speed:
    D&D has been designed with the option of a ‘rapid appraisal’ application at the planning stage of a project with in-depth follow up during project implementation.
    C. Repetition:
    D&D is an open-ended learning process. Since initial designs can almost always be improved, the D&D process need not end until further improvements are no longer necessary.
    Criteria of a good Agroforestry design:-
    There is no substitute for good design. A good agroforestry design should fulfill the following criteria:
    A. Productivity:
    There are many different ways to improve productivity with agroforestry: increased output of tree products, improved yields of associated crops, reduction of cropping system inputs, increased labour efficiency, diversification of production, satisfaction of basic needs, and other measures of economic efficiency or achievement of biological potential.
    B. Sustainability:
    By seeking improvements in the sustainability of production systems, agroforestry can achieve its conservation goals while appealing directly to the motivations of low income farmers, who may not always be interested in conservation for its own sake.
    C. Adaptability:
    No matter how technically elegant or environmentally sound an agroforestry design may be, nothing practical is achieved unless it is adapted by its intended users. This means that the technology has to fit the social as well as the environmental characteristics of the land use system for which it is designed.
    Who can make use of D & D?
    • Researchers
    • Extension officer
    • Government field workers
    • NGOs
    Basic Procedures of D & D:-
    The basic logic of the D&D discovery procedure is displayed in the following table 1. The process can be subdivided into small steps and used selectively for varying purposes, but the hierarchical logic of D&D is quite robust and generally applicable to virtually any problem in technology design. The more detailed procedural suggestions are best thought of optional steps for collecting and processing the information needed to answer the basic question shown in the table 1. At any time you feel you are getting lost in the details, simply return to this outline of basic procedures for a reorientation to know where you are in the process.
    Table 6.1 Basic procedure of D&D
    D&D Stages Basic Questions to answer Key factors to consider Mode of inquiry

    Prediagnostic Definition of the land use systems and site selection (which system to focus on?) Distinctive combinations of resources, technology and land user objectives Seeing and comparing The different land use systems

    How does the system work? (How is it organized, how does it function to achieve its objectives?) Production objectives and strategies, arrangement of components Analyzing and describing the system
    Diagnostic How well does the system work? (What are its problems, limiting constraints, problem- generating syndromes & intervention points?)

    Problems in meeting system Objectives (production short-falls, sustainability problems

    Casual factors, constraints and interventions points

    Diagnostic interviews and direct field observations

    Troubleshooting the problems, subsystems

    Design & Evaluation How to improve the system? (What is needed to improve system performance?) Specifications for problem solving or performance enhancing interventions Iterative design and evaluation of alternatives
    Planning What to do to develop and disseminate the improved system? Research and development needs, extension needs Research design project planning
    Implementation How to adjust to new information? Feedback from on-station research, on-farm trials and special studies Re-diagnosis and re-design in the light of new information

    D & D is an Iterative Process:-
    The basic D&D process is repeated throughout the project implementation stage to refine the original diagnosis and improve the technology design in the light of new information from on-farm research trials, more rigidly controlled on-station investigations, and eventual extension trials in a wider range of sites. As shown in the following flowchart, the iterative D&D process provides a basis for close feedback complementarily between different project components. By adjusting the plan of action to new information, the D&D process becomes self corrective. In an integrated agroforestry research and extension programme, the pivotal decisions are taken in periodic meetings which evaluate new results and revise the action plan accordingly. The process continues until the design is well optimized and further refinement is deemed unnecessary. You can enter the cycle at any point, but the ultimate fine-tuning and dissemination of the technology will most likely be accomplished by the farmers themselves.

Last modified: Monday, 22 October 2012, 5:11 AM