| Breeding objectives in Rose
Important species of Rose:
- To develop varieties suitable for cut flower with long stem for cultivation in open field as well as under protected conditions.
- To develop varieties with enhanced vase life.
- To develop varieties resistant to diseases like black spot, dieback etc.
- To develop varieties resistant to various insect pests like trips, red spider mite, bud borer.
- To develop varieties which are demanded in domestic and international market for varied colour and fragrance
- To develop varieties for the production for rose oil.
- To develop varieties suitable for various uses like cut flower, pot plant, border plant as well as to develop varieties suitable for landscaping purpose.
- To develop varieties for reliving or using as shock absorber.
- To develop varieties for improved yield and quality for open field as well as for protected condition
- Develop varieties with new and rare colors.
- To develop thornless varieties.
- B.K. Roychoudhary, a nurseryman of Mihijam in Santhal Parganas, W. B. was possibly the first Indian rose breeder who raised the variety 'Dr. S.D. Mukherjee' in 1935.
- Another nurseryman, B.S. Bhattacharjee of Deoghar evolved a variety named 'Makrishna Dev'.
- The late Dr. B.P. Pal, who was Director of IARI, has been one of the well known rose breeders who took up rose breeding towards the end of fifties and has developed 105 varieties of rose. His first rose variety was 'Rose Sherbet' which is highly fragrant, with the oil content of 0.003 per cent and was released in 1962.
- Besides Dr. B.P. Pal other amateur rose breeders are late Raja Surendra Singh of Nalagarh, M.N . Hardikar, M. S. Viraraghavan, Dr. S. Banerjee, Braham Datt, Dr. Y. K. Hande and S.C. Dey.
Several important species of Asian origin are diploid having chromosome number 14. These are:
A number of Western species with which these Asian hybrids crossed to yield several modern groups of roses are tetraploids with 28 chromosomes. These include Rosa gallica, R. foetida and their derivatives such as Rosa damascena and R. centifolia.
- Rosa chinensis: large climbing evergreen shrub armed with brown, scattered and hook prickles. Flowers single, blush pink or crimson or pink, non-fragrant.
- Rosa gigantea: very vigorous climber with thick, hooked prickles. Flowers large, single, white or pale yellow, fragrant and borne singly.
- Rosa moschata: vigorous climber with reddish, sparsely prickly stems. Flowers with, usually semi double but sometimes single with musk fragrance in terminal clusters.
- Rosa multiflora: deciduous shrub with vigorous climbing branches. Flowers single, white with golden centre of stamens, borne in clusters and scented.
- Rosa wichuriana: a vigorous rambler producing single flowers, white with yellow centre, scented in large clusters. Valuable as a parent of garden ramblers.
- Rosa gallica: shrub rose with stiff erect stems. Distinguished by comparatively thornlesssness but an abundance of small prickles. Flowers single, purplish crimson in small clusters.
- Rosa foetida: erect shrub with prickly stems, flowers single, bright golden yellow with unpleasant aroma, solitary or occasionally in clusters of 2-3. It has given rise to many modern yellow roses.
- Rosa centifolia: loose growing shrub with large flowers, fully double with overlapping petals, strongly fragrant, deep pink with a slight purplish hue towards centre.
- Rosa damascena: Hybrid origin. Old vigorous shrub with exquisite fragrance. Flowers borne in large clusters, semi double, sweet scented, bluish white to deep pink flowers.