Fluorescent Lamps are about 3 to 5 times as efficient as standard incandescent lamps and can last about 10 to 20 times longer. To gain the most efficiency, use current and proven equipment technology and install fluorescent luminaires in places where they can be integrated with the architecture, available daylight, and switching or dimming controls
Linear fluorescent lamps: T5HO lamps are now used in many high bay applications in place of H.I.D. lamps. These smaller diameter lamps have replaced the T12 lamps that have dominated the market for the past 30 years. These new lamps work well in luminaires that provide the general ambient lighting for a space. The long and diffuse nature of these lamps provides excellent surface lighting, and the smaller lamp diameters make for better optical performance in many luminaires. Indirect/direct linear fluorescent pendants and wall-mounted uplights are typical applications for these sources. Care must be taken to minimize direct views of extremely bright small-diameter lamps such as T5 and T5HO.
Compact fluorescent lamps: (CFL) are often used as simple substitutes for incandescent lamps due to their significantly longer life and better energy efficiency. Self-ballasted, "screw-in" retrofit CFL lamps are sometimes used in the energy saving retrofit market. Also, retrofit lamps cannot be dimmed. However, the performance of screw-in lamps is usually not as good as the separate lamp and ballast combination. Due to their small size, CFL lamps are used in recessed luminaires, wall and ceiling mounted fixtures, and even track lighting and task lighting. The diffuse nature of the fluorescent lamp makes the CFL lamp a good choice for down lighting and wall lighting (also referred to as "wall washing").
Inductive fluorescent lamps
Are white light sources with very good color rendering and color temperature properties. These lamps are energy efficient and offer extremely long life (over 100,000 hours), good lumen maintenance characteristics, and instant-on capability.
The lamp enclosure is called a "vessel" and (shapes vary) coated on the inside with phosphor. Dimming is already available in Europe and will be available in the near future in the United States.
They are powered by a small generator (about the size of a fluorescent ballast) attached to the lamp via a short fixed-length cable. The generator induces a current in the lamp which causes it to glow—there are no electrodes to wear out. The larger, diffuse nature of these sources makes them excellent for lighting larger volumes and surfaces.
They are often used in place of low- to medium-wattage high intensity discharge sources because of the instant-on capability and reduced maintenance associated with the longer lamp life. This lamp source has promising application for indoor and outdoor lighting applications.
Incandescent lamps are still used for accent and specialty lighting, where the warm color, controlled brightness, instant-on, and dimming capabilities of these sources is needed. Incandescent lamps can provide a "sparkle" that is not characteristic of more diffuse fluorescent sources. Most familiar are the standard pear-shaped, screw-in “A”-type incandescent light bulbs. They produce a warm light and provide excellent color rendition. They have a low efficacy compared to all other lighting options (10 to 17 lumens per watt) and a short average operating life (750 to 2500 hours).
Incandescent lamps can be made in other shapes and variations. Tungsten halogen lamps provide excellent color rendition. Reflector (R) and parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR) lamps direct light in a desired direction. All three are slightly more efficient than standard bulbs, have longer operating lives (2000 to 4000 hours), and are often used for accent lighting. PAR and low-voltage lamps can provide good beam control, and if dimmed, can also provide a reasonable lamp life. However, because of their lower energy efficiency and shorter lamp life, incandescent lamps should be used carefully for lighting of specific features. Some of the most effective lighting designs balance a small quantity of incandescent accent lighting with a fluorescent ambient (general) lighting system.
LED Lamps LED lamps are the newest addition to the list of energy efficient light sources. While LED lamps emit visible light in a very narrow spectral band, they can produce "white light". This is accomplished with either a red-blue-green array or a phosphor-coated blue LED lamp. LED lamps last 40,000 to 100,000 hours depending on color
Luminaire A luminaire, or light fixture, is a unit consisting of one or more of the following components:
Lamp(s) and lamp socket(s)
Lenses, refractors, louvers, blades, or other shielding.
An efficient luminaire optimizes the system performance of each of its components. There are a few types of luminaires that offer opportunities for energy conservation in a lighting system design. Many of these provide indirect light to brighten the ceiling or are designed to brighten walls or task surfaces. Most of them are fluorescent and are easily controlled for further energy savings.