## EXERCISE 2

 EXERCISE 2: LAY OUT OF DIFFERENT PLANTING SYSTEMS OF ORCHARD- RECTANGULAR HEXAGONAL/EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR SYSTEMS In the previous practical, square and quincunx systems were practiced. In the current practical, the other important being followed in flat lands are rectangular and hexagonal systems. The aims and methodology are the same as discussed in the first practical.1. Hexagonal system: In this system, the trees are planted in the corners of equilateral triangles (Fig.2.1). Six trees thus form a hexagon with another tree at its centre. As a seventh tree is accommodated in the centre of hexagon, this system is also called as 'septule'. This system, though a little difficult for execution but accommodates 15 percent more plants. The limitations of this system are that it is difficult to layout and the cultivation is not so easily done as in the square system. This system is generally followed where the land is costly and very fertile with ample provision of irrigation water. Fig 2.1: Hexagonal system of planting. Advantage: 1) Accommodates 15 % more plants than square system.2) Plants are planted at the corner of equilateral triangle. 3) Six trees are planted making a hexagon.4) If seventh tree is planted in the centre called septule.5) This requires fertile land.Disadvantage: Lay out is difficult and cumbersome.2. Rectangular system: In this system, the plot is divided into rectangles instead of squares and trees are planted at the four corners of the rectangle in straight rows running at right angles (Fig. 2.2). Like square system, this system also facilitates the interculture in two directions. The only difference is that in this system more plants can be accommodated in the row keeping more space between the rows. Advantages: 1) Lay out in rectangular shape. 2) More space between row and row.3) Inter-cultural operations in both the ways.4) Plants get proper space and sunlight. Fig 2.2: Rectangular system of planting.3. Equilateral triangular system: In this system, trees are planted as in the square system but the plants in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and such other alternate rows are planted midway between the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and such other alternative rows (Fig. 2.3). This system provides more open space for the trees and for intercrop. Fig 2.3: Triangular system of planting. Observations to be performed: Calculate of number of different fruit crops per hectare under rectangular and triangular system of planting.