Module 1. Production management

Lesson 2

2.1 Introduction

Gordon and Carson observed that production planning and control involve generally in the organization and planning of manufacturing process. Especially it consists of the planning of routing, scheduling, dispatching, inspection, and coordination, control of materials, methods machines, tools and operating times. The ultimate objective is the organization of the supply and movement of materials and labour, machines utilization and related activities, in order to bring about the desired manufacturing results in terms of quality, quantity, time and place.

Production planning without production control is like a bank without a bank manager, Planning initiates action while control is an adjusting process, providing corrective measures for planned development. Production control regulates and stimulates the orderly how of materials in the manufacturing process from the beginning to the end.

2.2 Benefits of Production Planning And Control

Production planning and control can facilitate for dairy industry entrepreneur in the following ways

2.2.1 Optimum utilization of capacity

With the help of Production Planning and Control [PPC] the entrepreneur can schedule his tasks and production runs and thereby ensure that his productive capacity does not remain idle and there is no undue queuing up of tasks via proper allocation of tasks to the production facilities. No order goes neglected and no machine remains idle.

2.2.2 Inventory control

Proper PPC will help the entrepreneur to resort to just- in- time systems and thereby reduce the overall inventory. It will enable him to ensure that the right supplies are available at the right time.

2.2.3 Economy in production time

PPC will help the entrepreneur to reduce the cycle time and increase the turnover via proper scheduling.

2.2.4 Ensure quality

A good PPC will provide for adherence to the quality standards so that quality of output is ensured. To sum up we may say that PPC is of immense value to the entrepreneur in capacity utilization and inventory control. More importantly it improves his response time and quality. As such effective PPC contributes to time, quality and cost parameters of entrepreneurial success.

2.3 Objectives of Production Planning Control

The ultimate objective of production planning and control, like that of all other manufacturing controls, is to contribute to the profits of the enterprise. As with inventory management and control, this is accomplished by keeping the customers satisfied through the meeting of delivery schedules. Specific objectives of production planning and control are to establish routes and schedules for work that will ensure the optimum utilization of materials, workers, and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in accordance with these plans.

2.4 Steps of Production Planning And Control

2.4.1 Production planning

Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations, each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency. It helps entrepreneur to work out the quantity of material manpower, machine and money required for producing predetermined level of output in given period of time.

2.4.2 Routing

The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest Production Planning and control. Production planning, production control planning, routing, scheduling, loading, dispatching, following up, Inspection corrective sequence of operations and to ensure that this sequence is strictly followed. In small enterprises, this job is usually done by entrepreneur himself in a rather adhoc manner. Routing procedure involves following different activities.

· An analysis of the article to determine what to make and what to buy

· To determine the quality and type of material

· Determining the manufacturing operations and their sequence

· A determination of lot sizes

· Determination of scrap factors

· An analysis of cost of the article

· Organization of production control forms

2.4.3 Loading

The next step is the execution of the schedule plan as per the route chalked out which includes the assignment of the work to the operators at their machines or work places. Gantt Charts are most commonly used in small industries in order to determine the existing load and also to foresee how fast a job can be done. It is a type of bar chart that illustrates project schedule. The charts explain the start and finish dates of terminal elements and summary elements of a project.

2.4.4 Scheduling

Scheduling is the last of the planning functions. It determines when an operation is to be performed, or when work is to be completed; the difference lies in the detail of the scheduling procedure. In a centralized control situation - where all process planning, loading, and scheduling for the plant are done in a central office- the details of the schedule may specify the starting and finishing time for an operation. On the other hand, the central schedule may simply give a completion time for the work in a given department.

2.4.5 Production control

Production control is the process of planning production in

· advance of operations, establishing the exact route of each individual item part

· or assembly, setting, starting and finishing for each important item

· or the finishing production and releasing the necessary orders as well as initiating the necessary follow-up to have the smooth function of the enterprise

2.4.6 Dispatching

Dispatching involves issue of production orders for starting theoperations. Necessary authority and conformation is given for:

· Movement of materials to different workstations

· Movement of tools and fixtures necessary for each operation

· Beginning of work on each operation

· Recording of time and cost involved in each operation

· Movement of work from one operation to another in accordance with the route sheet

· Inspecting or supervision of work

Dispatching is an important step as it translates production plans into production.

2.4.7 Follow up

Every production programme involves determination of the progress of work, removing bottlenecks in the flow of work and ensuring that the productive operations are taking place in accordance with the plans. It spots delays or deviations from the production plans. It helps to reveal defects in routing and scheduling, misunderstanding of orders and instructions, under loading or overloading of work etc.

2.4.8 Inspection

This is mainly to ensure the quality of goods. It can be required as effective agency of production control.

2.4.9 Corrective measures

Corrective action may involve any of those activities of adjusting the route, rescheduling of work, changing the workloads, repairs and maintenance of machinery or equipment, control over inventories of the cause of deviation is the poor performance of the employees. Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer, demotion etc. may have to be taken.

2.4.10 Re-planning

Re-planning is not corrective action. Re-planning revises routes, loads, and schedules; a new plan is developed. In manufacturing this is often required. Changes in market conditions, manufacturing methods, or many other factors affecting the plant will often indicate that a new manufacturing plan is needed.

2.5 Work Study

It is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying out activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities carried out.

Work study is the term that covers all aspects of the designed of work methods and the establishment of work standards. It is used to embrace the techniques of method study and work measurement which is employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out a specific activity.

A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.It is a major part of scientific management (Taylorism). After its first introduction, time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times, while motion study evolved into a technique for improving work methods. The two techniques became integrated and refined into a widely accepted method applicable to the improvement and upgrading of work systems.

Work study is the term used in Great Britain while in the USA it is called Time and Motion Study. The two terms are synonymous and are both concerned with discovering the best ways of doing jobs and with establishing time and output standards based upon such methods.

Last modified: Friday, 5 October 2012, 5:41 AM