Module 3. Personal management

Lesson 6

6.1 Introduction

The success of an organization largely depends upon the team of workers put to work in an industry and therefore skilled and qualified workers should be recruited.

6.2 Job Specification

Job specification is the delineation of the knowledge, skills, and abilities along with the associated education, training, and experience required to successfully perform within a position. The stipulated criteria normally constitute the minimum recruiting criteria or minimum qualifications for the position.

Job specification is also the product of job analysis. It is a statement of acceptable human qualities necessary to perform the job. It specifies the types of person required on the job and further assists in the selection of appropriate personnel by outlining the particular working conditions to be encountered on the job.

A job specification should include:
  • Physical characteristics as height, weight, sight, physical structure, health, etc.
  • Characteristics as decision-making ability, analytical view, mental ability etc.
  • Personnel characteristics as behavior, mental stability, enthusiasm, leadership qualities, integrity etc.
  • Responsibility, i.e., the sense of responsibility in a person to be appointed on the job.
The applicants are assessed on the basis of qualities mentioned in the job specification statement. The job description assists the candidate to understand the requirements of the job which are to be fulfilled by him and also helps the management in appraising the performance of the employee.

6.3 Job Evaluation

Job evaluation deals with money and work. It determines the relative worth or money value of jobs.

Definitions of job evaluation:
  • By International Labor Organization defined job evaluation as "as attempt to determine and compare demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned."
  • Wendell L. French defined job evaluation as, "a process of determining the relative worth of the various jobs within the organization, so that differential wages may be paid to jobs of different worth."
6.3.1 Objectives of job evaluation

The following objectives are derived from the analysis of the above-mentioned definitions:
  • To gather data and information relating to job description, job specification and employee specifications of various jobs in an organization.
  • To compare the duties, responsibilities and demands of a job with that of other jobs.
  • To determine the hierarchy and place of various jobs in an organization.
  • To determine the ranks or grades of various jobs.
  • To ensure fair and equitable wages on the basis of relative worth or value of jobs. In other words, equal wages are fixed to the jobs of equal worth or value.
  • To minimize wage discrimination based on sex, age, caste, region, religion etc.
6.4 Job Enrichment

Job enrichment is enriching the jobs, adding more qualitative aspects. It is vertical expansion of jobs. The qualitative expansion such as increased responsibilities, more powers and autonomy are special features of job enrichment. Individual employee gets an opportunity to modify his performance and increase merit. Management has to provide opportunities which enrich jobs. Employees should feel enrichment should become motivator as pointed by Herzberg.

6.5 Job Enhancement

Job enhancement is when an employee is given new responsibilities or tasks that gives him/her the opportunity to develop his/her skills or abilities. A production person may be placed in marketing department and he will be more encouraged to get new assignment with his basic knowledge and on the other hand organisation will be benefited by utilizing his services for both activities.

Job enhancement is an effective way to help employees improve their essential skills, and it doesn’t require a lot of resources to be successful. It can:
  • Better prepare employees for promotions and organizational changes
  • Help address skill shortages
  • Improve performance
  • Increase job satisfaction
  • Increase motivation and self-confidence
  • Reduce employee turnover and stress
  • Support a healthy learning culture in the workplace.
The following activities are simple ways to improve essential skills through job enhancement. They are suggestions and can be tailored to meet the specific needs and goals of the employee.

6.6 Management by Objectives

Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process whereby the superior and subordinate managers of an organization jointly identify its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures of guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of its members. The MBO process is undertaken along the following lines:
  • The subordinate and superior jointly determine goals to be accomplished during the appraisal period and what level of performance is necessary for the subordinate to satisfactorily achieve specific goals.
  • During the appraisal period, the superior and subordinate update and alter goals as necessary due to changes in the business environment.
  • Both superior and subordinate jointly discuss whether the subordinate achieved the goals or not. If not, they should identify the reasons for deviation like strike/lock-out, market change etc.
Peter Drucker for the first time explored the management by objectives for getting improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction. As management principles are widely accepted, the MBO is spreading to cover even non-business organizations to manage their performance as systematic setting of objectives and goals lead to better results.

The setting of overall objectives is done by management after considering the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The key functional areas are identified first to formulate overall objectives. Key functional areas are those which have maximum impact on the overall performance. The key functional areas' performance is to be evaluated to understand their contribution in the organization. The objectives are generally used as measuring scales of performances. The inputs required for achieving the objectives are also appraised. Time and money factors are crucial items to have results-oriented performance. The department goals are guiding factors for deciding branch goals. Readjustment of department and sectional objectives is· essential to arrive at practical and feasible objectives. The individual supervisor's objectives are developed based on sectional objectives. The employees-supervisor relationship is also discussed while formulating their objectives. The supervisor's objectives usually known as targets are quantifiable, feasible and are time and cost oriented. Their performance is judged on these bases. The corporate objectives are achieved through corporate plans and strategies. Similarly departmental, sectional and individual objectives are achieved through departmental plans, sectional plans and action plans respectively.

The performance achieved is compared with the objectives to find out the position, causes and constraints of achievements in the areas of organizational performance and employee's satisfaction. The appraisal system is diagnostic rather than purely evaluative. The suggestions are brought forward through mutual discussion and personal considerations. This is perpetual functions e.g., deciding objectives, plan formations, actions, evaluation, diagnosis and reformulation of objectives, plans, actions and suggestions.

Goals setting are the first and final step in job-designing. The jobs are framed, described and allocated as per the goals set by organization which are achieved by the employees. The deviations between performance and goals are diagnosed and improved goals are set for further improvement of organizational performance and employees' satisfaction.

Last modified: Friday, 5 October 2012, 6:10 AM