| 1. PHYTOPHTHORA FOOT ROT:
The disease was first reported in 1902 from Wynad district of Kerala. The crop losses due to foot rot of black pepper have been reported to the tune of 119 to 905 tonnes per annum in Kerala.
i) Use healthy planting material.
ii) Removal of infected vines from the plantation is essential to reduce the inoculum buildup. The movement of soil through farm implements from diseased to healthy gardens may also be prevented.
iii) Application of soil amendments like neem cake, cotton seed and groundnut meal (250 g/m2) is also useful in managing the disease.
iv) Two sprays of Bordeaux mixture (5:5:50) during the pre monsoon and mid monsoon period reduce the aerial infection.
v) To minimize the soil borne inoculum, drenching of soil around the vines with copper oxychloride (0.3%). Fungicides like metalaxyl + mancozeb (0.25%) or cymoxanil + mancozeb (0.25%) can also be used for spraying.
vi) Soil application of bioagents like Trichoderma virens and T. harzianum @ 5x 105 cfu/g inoculum has also been found effective in the management of this disease.
vii) Different species of pepper like Piper colubrinum, P. arboretum and P. sarmentosum have been found resistant while cvs. like Narayakodi, Kallu valley, Uthirankotta and Balankotta were tolerant to this disease.
2. SLOW DECLINE OR WILT
i) Application of neem cake @ 1kg/vine reduce M. incognita population under field conditions.
ii) Apply Phorate (3 g a.i./vine) application twice a year for the management of both nematodes.
iii) Mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae, G. fasciculatum, Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora laevis also show varying degree of root knot suppression.
iv) Piper colubrinum is resistant to both root knot and burrowing nematode.
The disease is also known as “Pollu’. Spike shedding due to this disease can go upto 10 per cent. In early infection, there is up to 77 per cent weight loss of berries while late infection causes 56 per cent infection.
Disease cycle and epidemiology:
i) Sprays of carbendazim or benomyl (0.1%) at 10 to 14 days interval have been found effective in reducing the intensity of this disease by reducing the black spots per berry and also increase berry yield.
ii) Three sprays of Bordeaux mixture (5:5:50) during June-July, late July and late August have also been found quite helpful in reducing the disease.
4. LITTLE LEAF
6. STUNTED DISEASE
The disease was first recorded in black pepper nursery at Neriamangalam, Idukki, Kerala during the year 1975 and is now prevalent in Idukki and Wynad districts of Kerala and in Karnataka.
Last modified: Friday, 2 March 2012, 5:43 AM