The technical details about various components of CADWM programme furnished here below are from MOWR plan reports.

12.1. Hardware Components (Grants on 50:50 basis between Centre and States)

12.1.1 CAD Establishment

The total cost on establishment of Command Area Development Authorities at project level and the Command Area Development and Water Utilization Departments and monitoring cell for monitoring of Command Area Development and Water Management Programme at State level should be kept to the minimum. The cost of establishment should not exceed 20% of the expenditure on works items namely, (i) OFD works, (ii) field, intermediate and link drains, (iii) reclamation of waterlogged areas and (iv) correction of system deficiencies. The expenditure on establishment, if any, over and above the 20% of the expenditure on works as stated above has to be met by the State Governments from their budget.

12.1.2 One-time functional grants to Water Users' Associations (WUAs)

a) Farmers themselves need to maintain Field Channels and Field Drains constructed under the programme in the subsequent years. It is, therefore, essential to involve WUAs in the planning and execution of OFD works, equitable distribution of irrigation water among all the land holders of an outlet command and repair/ maintenance of the distribution network after the same is handed over to them for management. Formation of WUAs at minor or in specified area of a canal is mandatory for implementing the CADWM Programme. In formation of WUAs, Panchayat representative should also be included as member.

b) To facilitate the working of these Water Users’ Associations a provision has been made for One-time Functional Grant at the rate of Rs.1000 per ha. (Rs.450 per ha by Centre, Rs.450/- per ha by the State and Rs.100/- per ha by the farmers). The Functional Grant will be given where Water Users’ Associations are formed, registered and actually engaged in distribution of water. The amount would be deposited in the fixed deposit account of Water Users’ Associations in the bank and interest accrued thereon would be used for the activities of the Associations.

12.1.3 Enforcement of Warabandi

a) The Command Area Development Authority should enforce the Warabandi below the outlets. Integrated water management including supply from the head regulator of main canal up to the farm gates should be considered as a single unit. Effective coordination with the irrigation staff is necessary in working out operation plan for the main system, which would be in conformity with the warabandi schedules prepared below the outlets. Preparation of operation plan for the main canal systems should be attempted in advance, considering the recommended sowing time of various crops for Kharif and Rabi seasons. Coordination with the Agriculture Department (extension wing of Agriculture Department as well as zonal research centers of State Agricultural Universities and ICAR or any other reputed Institute) who would advise about the most suitable dates of sowing of crops as well as crop sequences is also necessary for effective implementation of warabandi. Working out scheduled water distribution for opening of the canal, roastering of the branches or distributaries for providing equitable water supply in various sub-commands and informing the farmers in advance, need be done.

b) Central assistance for enforcement of warabandi is not available with effect from 1.4.2004.

The expenditure on regulatory/control structures to be installed for enforcement of warabandi can however be met from the component relating to correction of system deficiencies above the outlet upto distributaries of 150 cusec capacity. The regulatory structures could be:

− Construction of Adjustable Proportionate Modules (APMs) at outlet head and measuring devices in field channel like parshall flumes, notches (rectangular or trapezoidal) or weirs depending upon situation.

− Providing gates for the outlets in case of ungated or pipe outlets so as to control deliveries in the field channels.

− Display boards at outlet head showing the name of outlet, discharge, CCA, name of farmers, area of these fields, their turn indicating day and time for taking water, duration of time etc. The name of farmers’ Association, if any, functions, responsibilities and duties of the farmers should also appear on the board.

− Auto-transmitters coupled with gauge recorders for speedy and reliable transmission of gauges to the control stations. Training of farmers on Warabandi can be carried out by WALMIs and other State/Central agencies/Institutes and the cost met from software items. It is essential to maintain records of Warabandi system and progress of the same shall be monitored by the State level Monitoring Committee (as mentioned in Proforma-13 of Annexure-II) as well as this Ministry.

12.1.4 Survey Planning and Design

Topographic survey is meant for proper planning and designing of OFD works so as to ensure their quality. Soil survey is meant for land capability classification so as to understand their capability for crop planning and undertake proper treatment measures to realize their full potential. Proper topographic and soil survey maps of the project should be maintained in CADA records.

12.1.5 On-Farm-Development (OFD) works (comprising construction of field channels and also land leveling/shaping and realignment of field boundaries, where necessary)

a) This is an important activity under the Programme for efficient utilization of irrigation water. Properly planned, aligned and designed field channels should be constructed from the Government outlet in a manner that each and every field of the outlet command is connected by field channel. The assistance would be available for construction of field channels with related structures like cistern, measuring devices, drop structures, division boxes, turnouts, flumes, culverts, inverted siphons, subject to the prescribed cost norms. As a general guideline, a minimum of 20% length of the field channels may be lined, the length of lined channels may be less or more than 20% according to the actual conditions and subject to prescribed cost ceiling per ha. The Central assistance will be limited only to the prescribed cost norms and any additional cost involved will have to be borne by the State Governments.

b) To promote water use efficiency in irrigation, financial assistance can also be availed to be by the States for development of infrastructure to facilitate use of sprinkler / drip irrigation systems as an alternative to construction of field channels. The assistance under this item will not be admissible for sprinkler and drip irrigation systems but will be limited to construction of stilling tank, pump house and laying conveyance pipes from outlets upto farmers’ fields. The cost norms as applicable for On-Farm Development (OFD) works will also be applicable for such works.

12.1.6 Field, Intermediate and Link Drains

The expenditure under this component would be admissible on field drains from individual fields and other intermediate/link drains to provide connectivity to the main drains.

12.1.7 Reclamation of Waterlogged Areas

a) The problem of water logging in the Commands of irrigation projects has affected the health of the soil and reduced the agricultural productivity considerably. Central assistance to States is therefore being provided for reclamation of waterlogged areas in the irrigated command of the projects covered under CADWM Programme. The items of work under this scheme are:-

− Assessment of problem areas in the commands of irrigation projects.

− Planning and designing for preventive and reclamation measures.

− Taking up the preventive and remedial activities like land management, drainage (surface, sub-surface, vertical etc.).

− Monitoring and evaluation.

b) A component on bio-drainage has also been added w.e.f 1.4.2004. Wherever feasible, biodrainage techniques alone or in conjunction with conventional techniques may be used for reclamation of waterlogged areas. Proper guidance on implementing this component from Central/ State forest Departments, Agricultural Universities, ICAR/ WTC Centres etc.

c) Prior approval of the Government of India will be necessary before undertaking the reclamation work. A consolidated proposal for all the pockets of a project where reclamation work has to be taken up may be prepared. The proposal so prepared may be discussed in the State level committee and then sent to the regional office of CWC and to the Ministry.

Upon recommendations of the CWC, the multi-disciplinary Core Group of the Ministry will consider the proposal for approval.

12.1.8 Correction of system deficiencies

a) A number of irrigation projects in the country have been operating much below their potential due to shortage of funds for O&M related activities such as cleaning of the channels by de-silting and weeding, raising earthwork in embankments or dressing the bed and side slopes to the design standard and removing undercuts in hard strata, strengthening of banks in filling sections, restoring bed gradients, replacing and painting metal parts in gates and hoists, making control and measuring devices fully functional etc. This has been by and large responsible for unreliability in availability of irrigation water at farm level and consequently the reduced irrigation efficiency. The scope of the CADWM Programme has,  therefore, been expanded to take care of system deficiencies occurring above the outlet up to distributaries of 4.25 cumec (150 cusec) capacity. This would eventually improve the output of the activities below the outlet as well.

b) The State Governments will be required to ensure that distributory Committees are formed, who can take over these distributaries for operation and maintenance, after these have been rehabilitated. Work on this item is to be executed with Minor/distributary as a unit and preferably on those distributaries where all outlets have been saturated and the OFD works have been handed over to the WUAs. Prior approval of the Government of India will be necessary before undertaking the rehabilitation work and the process of approval shall be the same as described under the item ‘reclamation of waterlogged areas’.

12.2. SOFTWARE COMPONENTS (grants on 75: 25 sharing basis between Centre and States)

12.2.1 Adaptive Trials and Demonstrations

a) Appropriate water management practices at the field level, usually called on-farm water management, which include preparation of fields to receive irrigation water, improved methods of irrigation such as, border strips, check basins, furrows, determining the optimal length of fields, suitable stream size etc. are required to be experimented in different locations and demonstrations there of arranged for the benefit of the farmers. Working out appropriate frequencies and water dosages for different crops, evolving water allowances in the command after considering the total water available, field application losses as well as the conveyance losses so as to ensure equity in distribution of water in various subcommands as well as among the farmers can also be experimented under these trials. Training farmers in respect of irrigated agriculture, switching over from rain fed crops with low risk-low inputs to high inputs high risk irrigated crops so as to increase yields as well as profits is required to be included in these trials. This change over has to be gradual after considering the financial capability of the farmers which can be done by adjusting the most suitable combination of fertilizer ingredients (NPK) after testing the soils. For this purpose comprehensive adaptive trials should be taken up in the respective command areas according to the guidelines already issued. Prior approval from the Ministry may be taken by the State Governments in respect of Adaptive Trials before their execution and incurring of expenditure and the mode of approval shall be as defined under the item ‘reclamation of waterlogged areas’’. The job can also be entrusted to WALMIs/ other appropriate central and State organizations.

b) It has been observed that not much activities under action research on PIM has been undertaken either by the CADAs or the WALMIs. Efforts under CADWM therefore need to be intensified to initiate action research on various aspects of PIM such as creating awareness on PIM, stress on equity, rights and duties of farmers, enforcement of Warabandi, collection of water charges, O&M of the system, running of Water Users’ Associations etc.

12.2.2 Training

a) The Staff of irrigation department at management level, field staff and functionaries of the Command Area Development Authorities would need training in improving the deliveries from the main system, on-farm water management, enforcement of Warabandi, planning & designing of OFD works, Participatory Irrigation Management etc. The farmers would also need training in distribution of water below the outlet or minor and maintenance of field channels/field drains, use of improved water management and agricultural practices.

b) The superintending engineers, executive engineers and deputy engineers can be trained at the respective WALMI’s in the states but the field level staff and farmers need to be trained at the project level. Project level training centers may therefore be set up for imparting training in respect of the activities or works entrusted to the various categories of staff so as to improve their capabilities and also to ensure effective quality control. The job can also be entrusted to WALMIs/ other central and State Agencies wherever feasible. The farmers particularly the members of the executive body of WUAs and members of the minor/ distributory committees may be trained in irrigated crops, crop rotations, proper sowing times, crop water-soil relationship, warabandi, Participatory Irrigation Management and maintenance of field channels/drains. This can be done by organizing 3-5 days workshops, training programme, etc.


a) Water Users' Associations are to be formed before taking up on farm development activities

b) On Farm Development Works must be implemented with active involvement of Water Users' Associations and handed over to them after completion.

c) Field link & intermediate drains are also to be simultaneously constructed along with OFD works wherever required

d) WALMIs are to be intimately involved in training and other related activities.

e) After the On-farm development works have been completed and all outlets are saturated, an MOU must be signed between Minor/distributory committees and Irrigation departments for future maintenance.

Last modified: Friday, 28 February 2014, 5:56 AM