Module 1. Introduction of dairy plant design and layout

Lesson 3

3.1 Introduction

The wide range of milk procurement methods and handling has an affect on the plant design and layout. The method of milk procurement is also changing over the years. The recent trend of Bulk Milk Cooling at village clusters is altogether eliminating the procurement of milk by cans at the Dairy plants.

Lack of attention during procurement, processing and storage leads to decrease in the milk shelf-life. Quick chilling of milk should be done during the procurement if the dairy is far away from the Dairy Processing Plant and such milk is to be transported in bulk in insulated tankers to the dairies. In India, milk production is carried out in rural areas from where it is transported to milk processing plant. Thereafter distribution to consumers is done through depots and/or milk parlours.

3.2 Milk Procurement

In most of the countries, milk production is carried out in rural areas from where it is transported to milk processing plant. Under Indian conditions, milk has to be regularly collected and transported twice a day, morning and evening. The usual methods of milk collection and reception at dairy plant are:

(i) Milk procurement through individual producers: In this milk is brought to the dairy plant by the individual producers in their own vessels of any type. This is possible for those producers who are located nearby milk collection centre.

(ii) Milk collected through co-operative organizations: Here, co-operative societies form an organization which is responsible for uninterrupted supply of milk to the dairy plant. Supply of milk can also be affected by single co-operative society formed by milk producers. This is beneficial to the producers as there is no middle man to share profit.

(iii) Milk procured through contractors: In this method the contractor supplying milk to the dairy plant collects the milk from producers at a cheaper rate and transports the milk to the dairy. Therefore, there is less return to the milk producers, as milk contractor will keep his share in the profit.

(iv) Milk reception from milk collection cum chilling centres: This method is generally possible and is prevalent in organized sectors, and dairy operations in India.

Milk is collected at various milk collection centres from nearby villages in 40 litre cans usually belonging to the organization. The milk is weighed, tested for fat content and kept ready to be dispatched to the milk chilling centre. From collection centre milk is picked up in an open truck and brought to milk chilling centre or dairy plant, where milk cans are emptied, washed through can washer and sent back to milk collection centres for next day collection of milk.

3.3 Three Tier Structure of ‘Anand Pattern’

The Anand pattern for collection of milk, processing and marketing of milk and milk product is very popular for co-operative structure in Gujarat, and few other states. Fig. 3.1 shows three tier system of ‘Anand Pattern’.

Fig. 3.1 Three tier structure of 'Anand Pattern"

i) The Village Society

An Anand Pattern village dairy cooperative society (DCS) is formed by milk producers. Any milk producer can become a DCS member by buying a share and committing to sell milk only to the society. Each DCS has a milk collection centre where members supply milk every day. Each member's milk is tested for quality with payments based on the percentage of fat and SNF. At the end of each year, a portion of the DCS profits is used to pay each member a patronage bonus based on the quantity of milk poured.

ii) The District Union

A District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union is owned by dairy cooperative societies. The Union buys all the societies' milk, then processes and markets fluid milk and products. Most Unions also provide a range of inputs and services to DCSs and their members: feed, veterinary care, artificial insemination to sustain the growth of milk production and the cooperatives' business. Union staff train and provide consulting services to support DCS leaders and staff.

iii) The State Federation

The cooperative milk producers' unions in a state form a State Federation which is responsible for marketing the fluid milk and products of member unions. Some federations also manufacture feed and support other union activities.

The transportation of milk to milk collection centre by various methods has an important bearing on the quality and time constraints placed on the milk procurement.

Table 3.1 Various modes of transportation of milk to collection centre

Last modified: Wednesday, 26 September 2012, 9:53 AM