Lesson 31. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD PRESERVATION-PHYSICAL METHODS
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD PRESERVATION-PHYSICAL METHODS
Foods are mainly composed of biochemical compounds which are derived from plants and animals. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are the major constituents of food. In addition, minor constituents such as minerals, vitamins, enzymes, acids, antioxidants, pigments, flavours are present. Foods are subject to physical, chemical, and biological deterioration. The major factors affecting food spoilage are
1) Growth and activities of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and molds)
2) Activities of food enzymes and other chemical reactions within food itself
3) Infestation by insects, rodents
4) Inappropriate temperatures for a given food
5) Either the gain or loss of moisture
6) Reaction with oxygen
The vast majority of instances of food spoilage can be attributed to one of two major causes: (1) the attack by microorganisms such as bacteria and molds, or (2) oxidation that causes the destruction of essential biochemical compounds and/or the destruction of plant and animal cells. Chemical and/or biochemical reactions results in decomposition of food- due to microbial growth. There is a adverse effect on appearance, flavour, texture, colour, consistence and/or nutritional quality of food.
31.2 Food Preservation
Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or greatly slow down spoilage (loss of quality, edibility or nutritive value) caused or accelerated by micro-organisms. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms, as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. It also includes processes to inhibit natural ageing and discolouration that can occur during food preparation such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut. Preservative for food may be defined as any chemical compound and/or process, when applied to food, retard alterations caused by the growth of microorganisms or enable the physical properties, chemical composition and nutritive value to remain unaffected by microbial growth.
31.3 Principles of Food Preservation
The principles of various methods for food preservation are as
1) Prevention or delay of microbial decomposition
• By removal of microorganisms
• By hindering the growth and activity of microorganisms (e.g. by low temperatures, drying, anaerobic conditions, or chemicals)
• By killing the microorganisms (e.g. by heat or radiation)
2) Prevention or delay of self decomposition of the food
• By prevention or delay of chemical reactions (By using antioxidant)
31.4 Methods of Food Preservation
Preservation of food is achieved by application of physical, chemical and/or biological methods are as follows:
→ Low temperature refrigeration (0 to 7°C ) - preserves for shorter period (days) → Freezing - preserves for several months
• Heating → pasteurization, cooking, sterilization etc
• Exposure to ionizing radiation → U.V., γ, etc
• Application of high pressure
• Drying → removal of water to a level which does not support the growth of microorganism
• In such situation one has to opt for chemical methods of preservation.
• It involves application of chemical additives which act as antimicrobial agents.
Souring (fermentation) lactic and acetic acid, e.g. cheese and cultured milk.
31.4.1 Thermal treatment
The term "thermal" refers to processes involving heat. Heating food is an effective way of preserving it because the great majority of harmful pathogens are killed at temperatures close to the boiling point of water. In this respect, heating foods is a form of food preservation comparable to that of freezing but much superior to it in its effectiveness. A preliminary step in many other forms of food preservation, especially forms that make use of packaging, is to heat the foods to temperatures sufficiently high to destroy pathogens.
In many cases, foods are actually cooked prior to their being packaged and stored. In other cases, cooking is neither appropriate nor necessary. The most familiar example of the latter situation is pasteurization. Conventional methods of pasteurization called for the heating of milk to a temperature between 145 and 149 °F (63 and 65 °C) for a period of about 30 minutes, and then cooling it to room temperature. In a more recent revision of that process, milk can also be "flash-pasteurized" by raising its temperature to about 160 °F (71 °C) for a minimum of 15 seconds, with equally successful results. A process known as ultra high pasteurization uses even higher temperatures of the order of 194 to 266 °F (90 to 130°C) for periods of a second or more.
31.4.2 Low temperature
The lower the temperature, the slower will be chemical reactions, enzyme action, and microbial growth. Each microorganism present has an optimal temperature for growth and a minimal temperature below which it cannot multiply. As the temperature drops from this optimal temperature toward the minimal, the rate of growth of the organism decreases and is slowest at the minimal temperature. Cooler temperatures will prevent growth, but slow metabolic activity may continue. Most bacteria, yeasts, and molds grow best in the temperature range 16-38oC (except psychrotrophs). At temperatures below 10oC, growth is slow and becomes slower the colder it gets. The slowing of microbial activity with decreased temperatures is the principal behind refrigeration and freezing preservation.
One of the oldest methods of food preservation is by drying, which reduces water activity sufficiently to prevent or delay microbial growth. The term water activity is related to relative humidity. Relative humidity refers to the atmosphere surrounding a material or solution. Water activity is the ratio of vapour pressure of the solution to the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Under equilibrium conditions water activity equals RH/100. At the usual temperatures permitting microbial growth, most bacteria require a water activity as low as 0.90-1.00. Some yeasts and molds grow slowly at a water activity as low as 0.65. Food is dried either partially or completely to preserve it against microbial spoilage.
The lethal effects of radiation on pathogens has been known for many years. The radiation used for food preservation is normally gamma radiation from radioactive isotopes or machine-generated x rays or electron beams. One of the first applications of radiation for food preservation was in the treatment of various kinds of herbs and spices, an application approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1983. In 1985, the FDA extended its approval to the use of radiation for the treatment of pork as a means of destroying the pathogens that cause trichinosis. Experts predict that the ease and efficiency of food preservation by means of radiation will develop considerably in the future.
31.5 Preservation of Food through Irradiation
Radiation processing of food involves exposure of food to short wave radiation energy to achieve a specific purpose such as extension of shelf-life, insect disinfestation and elimination of food borne pathogens and parasites. In comparison with heat or chemical treatment, irradiation is considered a more effective and appropriate technology to destroy food borne pathogens. It offers a number of advantages to producers, processors, retailers and consumers. Radiation processing of food involves exposure of food to short wave radiation energy to achieve a specific purpose such as extension of shelf-life, insect disinfestation and elimination of food borne pathogens and parasites.
31.5.1 Type of Radiation
The type of radiation used in processing materials is limited to radiations from high energy gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons. These radiations are also referred to as ionizing radiations because their energy is high enough to dislodge electrons from atoms and molecules and to convert them to electrically-charged particles called ions.
Gamma rays and X-rays, like radiowaves, microwaves, ultraviolet and visible light rays, form part of the electromagnetic spectrum and occur in the short-wavelength, high-energy region of the spectrum and have the greatest penetrating power. They have the same properties and effects on materials, their origin being the main difference between them. X-rays with varying energies are generated by machines. Gamma rays with specific energies come from the spontaneous disintegration of radionuclides.
Naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides, also called radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes, emit radiation as they spontaneously revert to a stable state. The time taken by a radionuclide to decay to half the level of radioactivity originally present is known as its half-life, and is specific for each radionuclide of a particular element. Only certain radiation sources can be used in food irradiation. These are the radionuclides cobalt-60 or cesium-137; X-ray machines having a maximum energy of five million electron volts (MeV) (an electron volt is the amount of energy gained by an electron when it is accelerated by a potential of one volt in a vacuum); or electron accelerators having a maximum energy of 10 MeV. Energies from these radiation sources are too low to induce radioactivity in any material, including food.
31.5.2 Unit of Radiation Dose
Radiation dose is the quantity of radiation energy absorbed by the food as it passes through the radiation field during processing. It is measured using a unit called the Gray (Gy).
In early work the unit was the rad (1 Gy = 100 rads; 1 kGy =1000 Gy).
Interest in the practical application of the process is emerging for many reasons. High food losses caused by insect infestation, microbial contamination and spoilage; mounting concern over food borne diseases, harmful residues of chemical fumigants and the impact of these chemicals on the environment, the stiff standards of quality and quarantine restrictions in international trade are some of the reasons. Though irradiation alone can not solve all the problems of food preservation, it can play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses and use of chemical fumigants.
On the basis of radiation dose, applications of radiation can be classified into:
Low Dose Applications
31.5.4 Advantages and disadvantages of radiation processing of food