Additions to the curriculum

Children With Developmental Challenges 3(2+1)

Lesson 13 : Educational Programmes for the Blind

Additions to the curriculum

Blind children have to acquire their knowledge and abilities through senses other than the visual. A provision must be made in their curriculum for learning these extras over and above the general programme for seeing children.

  • Braille: is a system of ‘touch’ reading. Embossed characters use different combinations of six dots arranged in a cell two dots wide and three dots high. The symbols are embossed on heavy manila paper in a left to right order and the reader usually ‘reads’ with one hand and keeps his place vertically with the other. Braille reading is relatively slow. The average speed being about sixty words per minute or about one-third or one-fourth the rate of sighted readers. Braille writing is another addition to the curriculum of blind children. It is taught later than Braille reading. There are various devices of writing the symbols, easiest and fastest of which is the Braille typewriter or Braille writer machine. Braille can also be written by hand, using a special slate and s. stylus. Braille slates which come in desk and pocket sizes are boards with a double metal strip, the tower part of which is pitted by cells of six dots each and the upper punched with corresponding holes.


  • Teaching command of the environment is of special importance to the blind child in that both his physical and social independence are involved.
  • Teaching special competence is part of the job of the blind child’s family, teachers and friends. The seeing child acquires visually much socially useful information which is not accessible to the blind child, who does not, for instance, know as who is the room or as he enters or what visual stimuli might have prompted a burst of laughter from his peers.


  • Specialized materials and equipments: any programme for the blind must take into account the additional, often very specialized material and equipment necessary to provide meaningful experience. The ability to use this equipment efficiently is another accomplishment which the curriculum must foster.
Last modified: Wednesday, 11 April 2012, 6:27 AM