Classification of Individuals with MR

Children With Developmental Challenges 3(2+1)

Lesson 18 : Mental Retardation

Classification of Individuals with MR

Classification include grouping individuals with mental retardation as follows

  1. Etiology or causes:
    1. Due to disease or biological defect
      1. Infections –Rubella, Maternal Syphilis.
      2. Chromosomal abnormalities – Down’s syndrome
      3. Metabolic disorder (PKU)
    2. Intellectual deficits : there are 4 levels of M.R:
      1. Mild 52 – 70
      2. Moderate 36 – 52
      3. Severe – 20 – 35
      4. Profound ---below 20
    3. Educational expectations/ Special educators.
      1. Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR): They are roughly equivalent to A A M R labels of mild & moderate M.R. with IQ s ranging from 50-75 & 35-50. Have some limited, academic potential.
      2. Trainable M.R: Child is capable of learning but possibly could be trained in non academic areas.
      3. Totally dependent
    4. Educable Mentally Retarded : Mild and Moderately Mentally challenged are known as educable mentally retarded children. The term “educability” refers to minimum educability in the academic, social and occupational areas .Educable mentally retarded children are usually not recognized as mentally retarded at the preschool level.

      Although they are slightly delayed in talking, language and sometimes walking. The retardation is not so great as to cause alarm on the part of the parents. Most of these children are not known to be mentally retarded until they enter school and begin to fail in learning the required subject matter. Because of slow mental development, he is unable to profit to any great degree from the programs of the regular schools, but he has the following potentialities for development.

      1. Minimum educability in the academic subjects and in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic and so forth.
      2. Capacity for social adjustment to a point where he can get along independently in the community.
      3. Minimum occupational adequacy to such a degree that he can later support himself partially at the adult level.

      Trainable M.R: The Severely Mentally challenged comes under trainable mentally retarded. These children are subnormal in intelligence that they are unable to profit from the program of the classes for educable mentally retarded children, but they have the potentialities in three areas.

      1. Learning self-care in activities such as eating, dressing, undressing, toileting and sleeping.
      2. Learning to adjust in the home or neighborhood, though not to the total community and,
      3. Learning economic usefulness in the home or a sheltered workshop or in institution.

      Totally dependent mentally retarded (Profound): The totally dependent mentally retarded child is one who because of markedly subnormal intelligence is unable to be trained in self-care, socialization or economic usefulness and who needs constant help in taking care of his/her personal needs. Such a child requires almost complete supervision throughout his life since he is unable to survive without help.
      The educable and trainable groups require special education .The Totally dependent mentally retarded (Profound) require custodial care while the slow learners are placed in regular classes but require some help.

  2. Based on levels of support: American Association for Mental Retardation(A A M R 1992) needed to function effectively across adaptive skills in a total settings.
    1. Intermittent: Supports on short term during life span transitions with high low intensity.
    2. Limited: Consistent support. Time limited but not intermittent. Ex. Job training, Transition from school to adult status.
    3. Extensive: Support characterized by regular involvement. Not time limited in Some environments
    4. Pervasive: High intensity, constant help in all environments. Potential life sustaining chronic medical situation.
Last modified: Thursday, 12 April 2012, 7:22 AM