Lesson 12:Breads


Colour: Dark crust colour shall be too dark due to addition of more sugar or milk in the formula, over baking, high oven temperature or excessively fermented and conditioned old dough
The crust of bread should be crisp and should easily break but if the crust becomes tough and is not easily pulled, it is leathery. It is due to insufficient conditioning of gluten or if crust absorbs lot of moisture.

Blisters under the crust can be due to

  • Over proofing
  • Excessive steam or humidity in proof box
  • Improper handling during baking
  • If bread is baked in excessive humidity
  • Moulding under pressure or tight moulding

Under above situations, the moisture deposits on the surface of bread. Due to this increase in moisture content, the gluten of the affected spots acquires more stretchability and forms blisters under pressure of expanding gas during baking. Sometimes if moulding is under pressure or it is tight, some air bubbles will be entrapped under thin film of gluten. These air bubbles will expand during proofing and cause blisters during baking.

Very thick crust:

  • Too thick crust can be because of:
  • Use of less amount of shortening in the formula
  • Less sugar in the formula
  • Less moisture during proofing
  • Low oven temperature
  • Over baking

Flinty crust or shell tops
Sometimes crust of bread is hard and breaks like an egg shell called as flinty crust. This is generally with strong wheats where the flour is insufficiently fermented. Other factors for this fault are stiff dough formation, too young dough, inadequate pan proof and excessive top heat in oven.

Wild break
A smooth break shred is desirable. If the gluten is not adequately conditioned during fermentation, the top crust instead of rising gradually will burst open under pressure of expanding gas. Insufficient proofing of bread and excessive heat are likely to give wild break.

Sticky crumb
It may be due to sprout damaged wheat flour if it is proved or baked in excessive humid conditions and under baked. Rope disease also causes sticky crumb.

When the dough is adequately fermented, it gives elasticity to bread crumb otherwise the bread crumb will break into small fragments while slicing called crumbiness. It may be due to:

  • Too slack or tight dough
  • Excessive use of fat
  • Low salt content
  • Excessive use of mineral improvers.

Holes and tunnels in bread
If for any reason gluten strands break during proofing or baking, a chain reaction starts and neighbouring gluten strands will also break. It may be due to:

  • Use of weak flour
  • High yeast content in formula
  • Improper dispersion of ingredients
  • Too hot oven base
  • Undermixing or overmixing
  • Unbalanced formula
  • Young (insufficient fermentation and conditioning) or cold dough
  • Excessive dusting of flour
  • High temperature during proofing
  • Over proofing

Bread shape

Last modified: Tuesday, 6 December 2011, 6:49 AM