Method of seed production
Stages of seed production
- Breeder seed → Foundation seed → Certified seed
- CO.1, CO.2, MDU.1, Parbhani Kranti, Arka Anamika, Pusa A-4, Pusa Savani, Punjab-7, JK Harita, Parbhawa
- CO. 3, Mahyco hybrid, Shoba
- June-July, September- October and February- March
- Select field on which bhendi crop was not grown in the previous season, unless the crop was of the same variety and certified.
- Field should be free from wild bhendi (Abelmoschus sp.)
- Seed field must be isolated from other varieties at least by 400 M for foundation and hybrid seed production and 200 M for certified seed production.
- Varieties : 8-10 kg/ha
- Hybrids : 4 kg/ha (Female)
: 1 kg/ha (Male)Main field manuring
- Apply 12.5 tons of FYM/ha before ploughing.
- Apply 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha, of which 50% of the N should be applied as top dressing in two split doses at flowering and 10 days later.
- Minimum of three inspections for varieties and 4 inspections for hybrids should be at 1. Vegetative, 2 & 3. Flowering and 4. Fruit maturity stages. The rouging should be based on the plant characters, hairyness, fruit character like fruit colour, number of ridges, fruit length etc., and the off type and mosaic attacked plants should be removed from the seed field. Wild bhendi if present should be removed before flowering.
Rouge PlantSpecific field standards
|Off types (max)
|Objectionable weed (max)
|Diseases affected plants(max)
Pest and disease management
- Objectionable weed is wild Abelmoschus sp.
- Designated diseases– yellow vein mosaic (Hibiscus virus-1)
- The major pest attacking bhendi are jassids, aphids and white fly, which can be controlled by spraying rogar or dimecron or thiodon. The pod borer and red spider mites can be controlled by spraying thiodon and kelthane, respectively. The diseases such as yellow vein mosaic and powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides and karathane, respectively.
Integrated Pest management
- Spray carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit. or monocrotophos 36 WSC 2 ml/lit. combined with or neem seed Kernel extract 5 %.
- Set up pheromone trap at 12/ha.
- Collection and destruction of affected fruits.
- Release of egg parasite Trichogramma at 1.0 lakh/ha.
- Release of 1st instar larvae of green lace wing bug Chrysoperla carnea @ 10,000/ha.
- Spray Bacillus thuringiensis 2 g/lit.
- Monocrotophos 36 WSC 2 ml./lit. or dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit combined with neem seed kernel extract 5 %.
- Application of Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i /ha or Phorate 10 G 1 kg a.i./ha and Neem cake 400 kg/ha at sowing in furrows along with fertilizers.
Yellow vein mosaic virus
- Spray monocrotophos 2 ml/lit to kill the vectors i.e., white flies.
- Dust Sulphur 25 kg/ha or spray Dinocap 2 ml/lit or Tridemorph 0.5 ml/lit or
Hybrid seed production
- Carbendazim 1 g/lit or Wettable sulphur 2 g/lit immediately after noticing the disease and repeat after 15 days or four sprays of Triademephon (0.5%) at 10 days interval from 30 days after sowing
- In bhendi, since the flowers are large in size, hand emasculation and pollination is the best suitable method for seed production. The emasculation and dusting can be done as per the methods outlined in tomato. The male and female parents are raised in blocks at the ratio of 9:1 (Female: Male).
Pollination of emasculated budHarvesting and threshing
- Fruits should be harvested when they have dried (30-35 days after crossing). The pods which expose hairline crack and turned in to brown colour on drying alone are picked by hand and the seeds are separated manually. Then the seed are cleaned, dried and treated with captan/ thriam (2g / kg of seed).
- It can be upgraded by water floatation technique (i.e., the seed is immersed in a column of water (1:10 by volume). Stirred well and floaters (9-10%) containing insect damaged and ill-filled seeds are separated. The sinkers blackish olive green in colour that sinks down to the bottom are removed and dried.
- In okra, the seed coat colour ranged from green to grey and finally to black. The discoloured seeds may not be acceptable as seed for sowing because of poor physical appearance and high expected incidence of seed borne fungi. The normal green colour seeds have better storage potential.
- Bhendi seeds dried to 7 per cent moisture, treated with captan (2g kg-1 of seed) and stored in a sealed 700 gauge polyethylene bag could maintain 80 percent germination up to 24 months of storage.
Optimum stage of harvestProcessing
Seed standards hybrid /varieties
- Seeds are to be processed with BSS 7 wire mesh sieve.
|Pure seed (min)
|Inert matter (max)
|Other crop seeds (max) no/kg
|Weed seeds (max) no/kg
|Objectionable weed (max)
|Other distinguishable varieties (ODV) (max)
|For VP container (maxi)