Lesson- 25 Labelling and lamination

25.1 Introduction:

Label is the first point of contact between the consumer and the producer. It allows the consumers to know what exactly they are buying in terms of calories, proteins, fats etc. and thus enables them to make a ‘health conscious selection’. It informs the consumers regarding weight of the product, best before date, storage conditions and cooking recipe if any. It allows consumers to compare food products by Value for Money. A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article. Labels have many uses: product identification, name tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication. Special types of labels called digital labels (printed through a digital printing) can also have special constructions such as RFID tags, security printing, and sandwich process labels.

25.2 Purpose of Labels:

25.2.1 Information about Packaged Foods: It requires that all packaged foods list the name and address of the food's manufacturer, the weight or count of the food and nutrition facts for the food. The NLEA applies to all foods except for meat, poultry, eggs, prepared food or foods that are sold in bulk.

25.2.2 Nutrition value of product: The Nutrition Facts Label is the label with the most information for consumers. The first line of this label lists the serving size. The nutritional information that follows is based on this specific serving size. The next line lists the total calories, and the amount of calories that are from fat. The following lines contain the food's total fat content (including a breakout of saturated and Trans fats), cholesterol and sodium. Carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, vitamins and minerals are listed next. The percent of the daily value for each nutrient, based on a 2,000 calorie diet, is listed on the right side of the label. The footnote on the bottom of the label has the FDA's recommended dietary guidelines. If the food label is very small, this footnote is abbreviated.

25.2.3 Decoration: When food product is choicely labeled in bright and attractive colors, it attracts consumers to buy. It acts as a silent shelf salesman. The color and design should be in symmetry with product color and the level should have some relationship to the size and shape of the package and container.

25.2.4 Warning: Food labels also having warning and instructions about the food product. Labels educate consumers about allergens, preparation methods and storage conditions for products.

25.2.5 Identification: Identification of the product is the main role of the labels as the consumer must be able to identify. Name & address of the manufacturer, packer and / or seller and brand name also identify by the labels.

25.3 Types of Labels:

Paper labels may be classified into four main categories:

  1. Plain paper labels
  2. Pre-gummed paper labels
  3. Thermoplastic labels
  4. Pressure sensitive paper labels

25.3.1 Plain paper labels: Plain paper labels are cheaper than other same quality of labels. Any type of the plain paper label can be printed by standard printing machine and by normal printing methods. These labels can be applied by simple hand application, semi automatic to fully automatic procedure.

25.3.2 Pre gummed paper labels: Pre- gummed paper labels are prepared from dextrin and gum Arabic coated papers and then calendared, flattened or non-curled by a special process. The advantage over plain paper is that they require only to be moistened with water for ready use as a postage stamp.

25.3.3 Thermoplastic labels: Thermoplastic labels are prepared from paper coated with a synthetic resin which melts and becomes tacky on the application of heat. There are two varieties a) instant tack and b) delayed action. In thermoplastic labels printing inks are used for the printing purpose. In these types of levels liquid phase or solvent does not activate the adhesive and should be heat resistant.

25.3.4 Pressure sensitive labels:  Pressure sensitive labels may be considered as the most advanced form of labelling and is a process where the label is in a stage of permanent activation and does not require heat, moisture or gum in order to make it adhere to a surface. One can use finger pressure for sticking of the label on the surface. Paper sensitive label consists of a label paper coated with permanent tacky adhesive.

25.3.5 Swing labels: A tag may be described as a marking device that is attached to a container or product by some means other than adhesive- strings, ribbons, wire, holes and various types of slots and slits. High class food products, particularly those styled and designed as presentation and gift packages or units.

Some of the common terms for labels

Back label                         

 Used on back of containers.


Band label                          

Wraps around container or product, does not cover the entire surface.


Can label                            

Used on tin cylindrical containers.


Die cut label                       

Label of irregular shape cut with a die.


Embossed label                

Labels which have three dimensional effects


End label                        

Essentially a spot label applied to end of box or wrapped package


Neck label                      

Used for neck of bottle


Over-all wrap               

Covers the entire surface of a container top, bottom and sides


Spot label                     

Label which covers only a small portion of the container



 special purpose label, Affixed to product or container by string wire etc.


Wrap around label    

Wrap all around the container, does not cover top or bottom



Last modified: Wednesday, 3 July 2013, 9:19 AM