Most common cause of mortality and morbidity among children and adults is ARI, though not fatal among adults. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) may cause inflammation of the respiratory tract anywhere from nose to alveoli
- Upper respiratory tract infections including common cold, pharyngitis and otitis media.
- Lower respiratory tract infections including epiglottitis, laryngitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchitis. bronchiolitis and pneumonia,
Clinical Features: Running nose, cough, sore throat, difficult breathing and ear problem, fever. When severe, can lead to pneumonia- the cause of death. In some under developed countries measles and whooping cough can be reasons of ARI.
Agent Factors : bacteria and viruses
Host Factors: small children, specially malnourished and low birth weight infants. Adult women experience higher severity than men.
Risk Factors : climatic conditions, housing, level of industrialization, socio economic development, poor nutrition, overcrowded dwelling, intense indoor smoke, pollution.
Mode of Transmission: air borne route, direct person to person contact.
Control: Primary medical care services, early detection, treatment and prevention of ARI, education of the mother are better means of control.
Prevention of ARI : Improved living conditions, better nutrition, reduction of indoor smoke pollution, better MCH care and immunization are the means of prevention of ARI.