Pregnancy is regarded as a kind of physiological stress on the body. During pregnancy almost all systems of body such as cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems, works at increased efficiency throughout the gestation. This stress is most pronounced during last trimester (3-4 months) of gestation during which growth of fetus and placenta is maximum. Increased nutritional requirement of mother is one of most important criteria in providing better care. Following points are important in providing better care of pregnant animals:
Comfortable housing in terms of protection from extreme heat or cold.
Extra supplemental nutrition in terms of pregnancy allowance.
Proper hygienic and sanitation measure in the house.
Preparations should be made for clean and normal parturition.
Care of New Born: After completion of gestation, young one is exposed to extremely new environment. During uterine life fetus is completely dependant upon mother for its nutritional and oxygen demands. It is also surrounded by a sterile environment which is free from infective agents. After the birth, young one starts its own respiration, feeding and bodily movements for its routine activities. The immunological (body defense) system is also not well developed rendering it sensitive to infections. Therefore, utmost care is required to handle the new born and following points may be considered:
Aseptically removal of umbilical cords and application of logo’s iodine solution.
Mopping up of all placental fluids from the skin with sterile cotton or clean soft cloth.
Cleaning of nasal openings and removal of any fluids present in respiratory tract for initiation of respiration.
Provision for clean and dry bedding material for both mother & young one.
Assist in first suckling of young one within 3-4 hours of birth. Restrict quantity of colostrum feeding with one tenth of body weight during first week.
Provision of comfortable environment and protection from extreme heat or cold.
Menopause:During the reproductive age (10-50 years) the ovaries are gradually and continuously depleted of its ova. With each menstrual cycle few ova are lost from both ovaries. Number of oogonia in the ovaries are fixed at the time of birth and do not increase in post natal life. Menopause is terminal stage of reproductive age when menstruations are stopped, ovaries become devoid of ova and estrogen, progesterone secretions are stopped. During this stage, women suffer from fluctuating body temperature, depression, irregular menses followed by complete stoppage but the sexual desire is not lost.