Normal and Therapeutic Nutrition 3(2+1)
Lesson 29:Diabetes – causes, symptoms


Type I diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

  • Type I diabetes affects children or adults, was traditionally termed “Juvenile diabetes” (Figure)

  • Occurs due to loss of insulin-producing ?-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to a deficiency of insulin (Figure)

  • Immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type I diabetes is of the immune-mediated variety, where beta cell loss is a T-cell mediated autoimmune attack.
  • Most affected people are otherwise healthy with weight during onset of diabetes.
  • Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal in the early stages
  • Later the child becomes underweight and develops acidosis

Type II diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)

  • Adult onset diabetes occurs due to obesity
  • Milder or more stable
  • Caused due to insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity
  • Due to reduced insulin secretion
  • The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin by the insulin receptor in cell membranes (Figure)

Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus (MRDM)

  • Seen in young people (15-30 yrs) of tropical countries
  • Pancreas fail to produce adequate amount of insulin
  • Do not develop ketoacidosis

Gestational diabetes

  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles Type II diabetes, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness
  • It occurs in about 2-5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.
  • Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy
  • About 20-50% of affected women develop type II diabetes later in life.
  • They give birth to large babies. (Figure)

Last modified: Tuesday, 25 October 2011, 6:17 AM