History of plant quarantine regulations

History of plant quarantine regulations

    • In 1660, a quarantine law was enacted in Rouen, France, ordering the eradication of barberry plants from the vicinity of grain fields. The first British legislation against a disease in animals or plants was an Act of 1866 granting emergency powers for the destruction of all cattle affected by rinderpest which had been introduced into Britain by imported Russian cattle the previous year.

    • An embargo was passed in Germany to prevent importation of plant and plant products from the US to prevent the introduction of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) in 1873. In 1877, the United Kingdom Destructive Insects Act was passed to prevent the importation of the Colorado beetle.

    • In North America, the first legislative measures against plant disease were promulgated by states in 1875. Such measures included a series of laws against peach yellows. In 1891, the first plant quarantine measure was initiated in US by setting up a seaport inspection station at San Padro, California. In 1912, the US Congress enacted the Federal Plant Quarantine Act, which among other things, prohibits the entry of plants into the United States.

    • It was phylloxera gall louse (Phylloxera vastatrix) that provided the initial stimulus for the establishment of effective international cooperation on plant disease legislation. The aphid was introduced into Europe from America in 1865 and caused major losses in the vineyards of France.

    • The first international plant protection convention, the Phylloxera convention was signed at Berne on 3 November 1881 by five countries. This convention remained in force till 1951, when International Plant Protection Convention under FAO was established at Rome. This agreement was constituted with the purpose of securing common and effective action to prevent the introduction and spread of pests and diseases of plants and plant products.

    • Within the framework of the cooperation, there are six regional groups.
    • European Plant Protection Organization.
    • Inter-African Phytosanitary Commission for South Africa, South of Sahara.
    • Plant Protection Committee for South East Asia and the Pacific Region.
    • Organizmo International Regional de Sanidad Agroperciane for Central America and Mexico.

    • The PFS order was revised in order to fulfill India's legal obligations under the WTO Agreement and the Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India), 2003 (referred to as PQ order) came into force with effect from January 1, 2004.

    • Under the DIP act, the Directorate of Plant Quarantine and Storage (DPPQS), Faridabad, headed by Plant Protection Advisor to the Govt. of India (under the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture) is responsible for enforcing quarantine regulations and also for making rules for quarantine inspection and disinfestations of any article or class of articles in respect of which a notification has been issued by the Central Government.
    quarantine regulations
    • The National Plant Quarantine Station at Rangpuri, New Delhi and four Regional Plant Quarantine Stations at Amritsar, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai are the major stations and are located at places having international airport/seaport/land frontier with neighboring countries.

    • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, which is the nodal institution for exchange of plant genetic resources, has been empowered under PQ order to handle quarantine processing of germplasm and transgenic planting material being imported for research purposes in the country.

    • As per the recent amendments made under the PQ order, the Advanced Centre for Plant Virology at IARI, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore and Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur have been identified for ensuring virus-free status in the imported in vitro material.

    • Under the DIP Act, there is a provision of Domestic Quarantine to restrict the inter-state movement of nine invasive pests viz flute scale, sanjose scale, coffee berry borer, codling moth, banana bunchy top and mosaic viruses, potato cyst nematode, potato wart and apple scab.Keeping in view the biosafety concerns associated with the growing of imported transgenic material, a containment Facility of Level -4 has been established at NBPGR, New Delhi for their quarantine processing.

Last modified: Sunday, 1 April 2012, 8:53 PM