Health Hygiene & Sanitation

Lesson 17 : Lighting And Noise


  • Noise pollution like other pollutants is also a by-product of industrialization, urbanizations and modern civilization. 5
  • Noise pollution has two sources
    • industrial
    • non- industrial.
  • The industrial source includes the noise from various industries and big machines working at a very high speed and high noise intensity

  • Non- industrial source of noise includes the noise created by transport/vehicular traffic and the neighborhood noise generated by various noise pollution can also be divided in the categories ,
    • natural and
    • Manmade.
  • Most leading noise sources will fall into the following categories:
    • road traffic,
    • aircraft, railroads,
    • construction,
    • industry,
    • noise in buildings, and Consumer products
  1. Road Traffic Noise:7
  2. In the city, the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaust system of autos , smaller trucks, buses,and motorcycles. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings, which produce acanyon in which traffic noise reverberates

  3. Air Craft Noise:
  4. Now-a-days , the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a new dimension to community8 annoyance.

    Take-off of aircraft may lead to a sound level of more than 100 decibels at the ground, with approach and landing creating lower levels. Since aircraft landing in inner-city airports are often lower than 60 meters above roof level, a sound level above 100 dBA can be realized

  5. Noise from railroads:
  6. The noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles, and switching and shunting operation in rail yards can impact neighboring communities and railroad workers.


    For example, rail car retarders can produce a high frequency, high level screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet, which translates to levels as high as 138, or 140 dB at the railroad worker’s ear.

  7. Construction Noise:
  8. The noise from the construction of highways, city streets12, and buildings is a major contributor to the urban scene. Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers, air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks (and their back-up signals), and pavement breakers.

  9. Noise in Industry:
  10. neighbors of noisy manufacturing plants can be disturbed by sources such as fans, motors, and compressors mounted on the outside of buildings Interior noise can also be transmitted to the community through open windows and doors, and even through building walls. These interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers, among whom noise - induced hearing loss is unfortunately common.

  11. Noise in building:
  12. Apartment dwellers are often annoyed by noise in their homes, especially when the building is not well designed and constructed.

    In this case, internal building noise from plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, and fans, can be audible and annoying.

    Improperly insulated walls and ceilings can reveal the sound of-amplified music, voices, footfalls and noisy activities from neighboring units. External noise from emergency vehicles, traffic, refuse collection, and other city noises can be a problem for urban residents, especially when windows are open or insufficiently glazed.

  13. Noise from Consumer products:13
  14. Certain household equipment, such as vacuum cleaners and some kitchen appliances have been and continue to be noisemakers, although their contribution to the daily noise dose is usually not very large

  15. Poor Urban Planning
  16. Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities.

    Another key role of urban planning is urban renewal, and re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural decay

  17. Noise from recreational vehicles
  18. The noise produced by these vehicles is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume


Effects of Noise on Health

On Human Health

  • Auditory
    • Auditory fatigue
    • Deafness
  • Non-auditory effects
    • Interference with speech
    • Annoyance
    • Efficiency
    • Physiological changes
  • On Vegetation
  • On animals



Temporary or permanent Deafness:-

The effect of noise on audition is well recognized. Mechanics, locomotive drivers, telephone operators etc. have their hearing impaired as a result of noise at the place of work. Physicist, physicians & psychologists are of the view that continued exposure to noise level above 80 to 100 db is unsafe. Loud noise causes temporary or permanent deafness



  • Cardiac : 19

    • It causes High Blood Pressure: - It attacks the person’s peace of mind. The noises are recognized as major contributing factors in accelerating the already existing tensions of modern living. These tensions result in certain disease like blood pressure or mental illness etc.

  • It decreases the efficiency of a man:-

    • Regarding the impact of noise on human efficiency there are number of experiments which print out the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction
    • A study by Sinha & Sinha in India suggested that reducing industrial booths could improve the quality of their work.
    • Thus human efficiency is related with noise.

  • Lack of concentration:-

    • For better quality of work there should be concentration, Noise causes lack of concentration.
    • In big cities, mostly all the offices are on main road.
    • The noise of traffic or the loud speakers of different types of horns divert the attention of the people working in offices.20


  • Because of Noise Pollution, people cannot concentrate on their work. Thus they have to give their more time for completing the work and they feel tired

Abortion:- 21

  • There should be cool and calm atmosphere during the pregnancy. Unpleasant sounds get the women irritated. Sudden Noise may cause abortion.
  • Exposure of workers to noise levels of 90-119 dBA was also found to result in

    • sleep disorders,
    • mental fatigue,
    • annoyance and
    • reduced alertness,
    • The speed of performance was impaired significantly by noise.

    • 22

    • Reaction time was enhanced under high noise condition.
    • Certain physiological measures (oral temperature, pulse rate and skin temperature) were also found to be high in workers engaged at high noise condition

    Effect on vegetation24

    • Poor quality of Crops:-

      • Now is well known to all that plants are similar to human being.
      • They are also as sensitive as man. There should be cool & peaceful environment for their better growth.
      • Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops in a pleasant atmosphere

    Effect on animal and property25

    • Effect on animal: Noise pollution damages the nervous system of animal. Animal looses the control of its mind. They become dangerous.

    • Effect on property: Loud noise is very dangerous to buildings, bridges and monuments. It creates waves which struck the walls and put the building in danger condition. It weakens the edifice of buildings
Last modified: Thursday, 26 April 2012, 12:01 PM