Commonly Used Building Stones

Basics in Building Construction 4(2+2)

Lesson 12 and 13: Basic Building Construction Materials

Commonly Used Building Stones

  1. Granite:

    Granite has a high comĀ­pressive strength ranging from 750 to 1350 kg/cm2. Its specific gravity ranges from 2.6 to 2.7. It can be used for all important works. It can be polished to a smooth surface but is unsuitable for ornamental works which require carving. It is used for heavy works like bridge abutment piers walls, pillars foundations aggregate etc. Granite deposits are available in plenty in Assam, Maharashtra, Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Gujarat, Punjab, Kerala and Rajasthan.

  2. Sand stone:

    Compressive stress of sandstone is low when compared to granite. It varies from 650 to 700 kg/crn2. Its specific gravity varies from 2.6 to 3.0. It permits easy dressing. It is used for unimportant building works and ornamental works, facing works, flooring walls etc. Sand stone is available in Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamilnadu , Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat.

  3. Basalt and Trap:

    Its crushing strengthof this type of stone varies from 1500 to 1900 kg/cm2. Specific gravity is 3.0. This is very hard, tough and dense in structure and hence difficult to work with. It is used in foundation, pavements, door sills etc. This type of stone is available in Maharashtra Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.

  4. Lime stone:

    Specific gravity of lime stone ranges from 2.0 to 2.8 and crushing strength varies from 500 to 550 kg/cm2. Due to its low crushing strength it is unsuitable for load bearing structure. It is used for flooring, paving and so on. It is available in Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat.

  5. Laterite:

    The crushing strength of laterite is very low. It ranges from 20 to 40 kg/cm2. This stone has to be air seasoned for 1-2 months after extracting from quarry as it contains moisture. It is used for unimportant works. It is available in Maharashtra, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

  6. Quartzite:

    It is dense, strong and difficult to dress. It is used for unimportant works like rubble masonry. It is available in Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat and Punjab.

  7. Marble:

    This is a form of lime stone formed by metamorphic action. It can be sawn easily and can be carved. It is best suited for ornamental work and takes high polish. It is available in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat. It is costly and is used for ornamental works, floors, facing works etc.

Requirements of a Good Building Stone

  • It should be hard, tough, sound, durable and should withstand wear and tear.
  • It should have high crushing strength.
  • A good building stone should not be affected by bad weather or polluted atmosphere.
  • It should have uniform and pleasing colour.
  • It should be fine grained, compact and crystalline in structure.
  • It should not have cavities, flaws and loose matter.
  • It should be capable of resisting action of acids.
  • When soaked in water for 24 hours, it should not absorb water by more than 5 percent.
  • It should have sufficient resistance against fire.
  • It should have high impact value.
  • It should facilitate easy dressing, carving etc
Last modified: Monday, 5 March 2012, 6:48 AM