Environmental issues

Lesson 24: Social issues and the environment

Environmental issues

Environmental issues are also a major global issue. Humans depend on a sustainable and healthy environment, and yet we have damaged the environment in number of ways. This section introduces other issues including biodiversity, climate change, animal and nature conservation, population, genetically modified food, sustainable development and more.

Guidelines for sustainable development:
  1. Reduce the input of matter and energy resources to prevent excessive depletion and degradation of planetary sources.
  2. Use energy more efficiently.
  3. Shift from fossil fuels to less harmful renewable energy resources.
  4. Control the population growth
  5. Place more emphasis on pollution prevention and waste reduction.
  6. Compost, recycle and reuse at least 60% by weight of matter
  7. Make things that last longer and are easier to reuse, recycle and repair.
  8. Protect vital habitats for wild species.
  9. Involve local residents in planning and execution of all projects.
  10. Use local wisdom, skills and resources.
Sustainable forest management:
  • Restrained felling of trees
  • Block and selective cutting
  • Reforestation
  • Control of disasters
  • Recycling of forest products
  • Social forestry
  • Agro-forestry
Sustainable agriculture
  1. Combine traditional and modern methods for growing crops.
  2. Grow more perennial crops
  3. Minimize soil erosion, Salinization and water logging.
  4. Reduce destruction of natural forests, grasslands and wetlands for the purpose of Producing food.
  5. Reduce water waste in irrigation.
  6. Increase the use of organic fertilizers.
  7. Increase use of IPM
  8. Subsidize sustainable farming.
Sustainable water management:
  1. Building several small reservoirs in stead of few mega projects
  2. Developing small catchment dams and protecting wetlands
  3. Soil management, micro-catchment development and afforestation permits recharging of underground aquifers.
  4. Treating and recycling municipal waste water for agricultural use.
  5. Preventing leakages from dams and canals.
  6. Preventing loss in municipal pipes.
  7. Effective rainwater harvesting in urban environments.
  8. Use drip irrigation system.
  9. Make bunds along the hill slopes and make nalla plugs.

Urban Problems related to Energy

  1. Kerosene became a popular urban fuel.
  2. Urban centres in hot climates need energy for cooling.
  3. New building materials require more energy to run large central air-conditioned units.
  4. High-rise buildings in urban centres depend on energy to operate lifts.
  5. Urban transport, depending on private vehicles, leads to traffic congestion and pollution.

Some of the most important urban environmental problems are:

  1. Slums and ousing Conditions
  2. Air Pollution
  3. Water Pollution
  4. Noise Pollution
  5. Solid Waste Disposal
Last modified: Tuesday, 3 January 2012, 11:34 AM