Elements of communication
The number of elements involved in the communication process varies according to different models. How ever , there are some common elements involved in most of the communication processess. These elements are discussed as follows.
I. The Communicator:
- Initiates the process of communication
- Also called as source (ie) originator or sender of the message.
- Takes decisions regarding the message , its treatment , the targeted audience and the channels for transmission of messages.
- Extension is a communicator in the context of agriculture and rural development .
- Has to organise the message in an easily understandable manner.
- Higher credibility of the organisation and the communicator in the view of the receiver will have higher rate of effective communication.Credibility refers to trust worthiness and competence.
II. Message or content
- It is the information package treated properly for a particular
channel and for a specific audience.
- Originates from an information but after proper treatment it becomes a message.
- It should be clear, appropriate , complete , realistic , timely and understandable from the audience point of view.
- It should clearly answer the basic questions like what, how, when ,about the technology and should give the possible outcomes..
- The message must be motivating to bring about the desirable changes in the behaviour.
III Treatment of messages:
- Treatment refers to the ways a message is handled to get the
information across a channel to an audience.
- It deals with the design for presenting messages in a channel.
- The purpose of message is to make a message simple, clear,
understandable and realistic to the audience.
- Treatnent involves creativity.
IV. Channels of Communication:
- A channel is the medium of communication through which the information flows from a sender to receiver/s. They are the bridges between the sender and receiver of messages.
- Elecronic media and print media are some of the popular media.
- As society transforms from traditional to modern emphasis changes from oral to media system of communication.
- Selection of channel depends on the nature of message,intenntion of communication,size of the audience and their geographic distribution , the nature of the community , time available and budget provisions.
- Use of a combination of channels simultaneously and in quick succession has been found to have a more lasting and meaningful impact on the audience.
- Channels can be classified in many ways as follows –
- Personal localite : Local leaders and local people belonging to to the receivers’ own social system.
- Personal cosmopolite : Channel from outside the receivers’ social system like extension personnel .
- Impersonal cosmopolite : Chanells from outside the social system of the receivers and at the same time no face to face communication is involved. Eg.; mass media.
- Many obstructions can enter into the channels and these are referred to as noise. Noise refes to some of the obstructions that prevent the message from being carried over clearly to the audience.Noise emerges from a wide sources and causes.
V . Receiver or Audience:
- Receiver is the target of the communication function.
- May be a single person , group or mass.
- Receivers decide whether to accept the message or not and to act upon it.
- A sucessful c ommunication should have a targeted audience.
- Receiver is not a passive receipient of message rather they are selective in receiving, processing and interpreting messages.
- The homogenous the audience , the greater the chances for sucessful communication.
VI. Audience Response:
- Terminal element in the communication process.
- Response by an audience to a message received is in the form of some kind of action of some degree, mentally or physically.
- Until the desired action results , extension communication does not achieve its purpose.
- The possible types of responses by the audience for the receipt of useful messages are as follows.
a. Understanding Vs Knowledge :
- Understanding refers to gain the ability to attach meaning to the facts and seeing the relationship of facts to each other and to the problem.
- Knowledge is just knowing about facts.
- When there is failure to promote understanding, they desired response may not be attained hence communication must promote understanding.
b.Acceptance Vs rejection:
- Higher order of understanding leads to acceptance.
- Mental acceptance is required before resulting to action. Mental acceptance / rejection
determine what the receivers would do when they are free to act on their decision.
c.Remembering Vs forgetting :
When opportunity for action is not immediately available or delayed, forgetting of what had been learnt would occur. This emphasizes the timing of communication programmes (ie) right message to right people at right time.
d.Mental Vs physical action:
- Change of mind always precedes physical action as mind controls overt behaviour.
- Physical action is the ultimate objective.
e.Right Vs Wrong :
- If the response of the audience is in line with the objective , it is assumed to be right
Action and the vice-versa..
- But due to noise and a variety of other reasons, people often fail to behave precisely according to instructions even when they understand and accept the instructions.