Module 14. Dairy development in India phases and schemes

Lesson 22

22.1 Introduction

This chapter describes key village scheme and intensive cattle development progrmme schemes implemented by Government for the development of dairy sectors of India. It gives important features and limitations of both the schemes.

22.2 Key Village Scheme (KVS)

After Independence the first organized attempt to develop village cattle on an effective scale was initiated with the launch of key village scheme (KVS) in 1950 during first five year plan. KVS is a general comprehensive scheme drawn up by Government of India for development of cattle population in India by employing scientific methods for improvement of cattle viz., Artificial insemination, Grading & selective breeding, Formulation of co-operative societies for marketing the pure breed cattle and development of feed & fodder. A key village is defined as an area or part of village or whole village or group of villages. Initially the aim was to cover 5000 breedable cows and buffaloes & later on increase up to 10,000.

The important features of cattle development under key village scheme are as under.

1. Initially natural service was practiced but later on artificial insemination was introduced at most of the KVS.

2. Establishment of gosadans and goshalas was encouraged.

3. Developing dual purpose breed was emphasized so as to provide good bullocks and simultaneously increase the milk production.

4. Propagation of cross breeding Programme.

5. Protecting the animals against prevalent contagious diseases was carried out.

The key village scheme thus employed all aspects of cattle improvement for e.g controlled breeding, improved feeding, disease and health control, better management and marketing and adoption of improved animal husbandry practice through proper extension methods. KVS thus has helped greatly in developing good quality cattle in different parts of the country. KVS was sound approach for implementing programmes of cattle development in an integrated manner, but due to the vastness of the country (vast magnitude of Problem), the KVS were not able to make necessary impact for immediately increasing the milk production. Each KVS was only a tiny area of well organized activity surrounded by vast area where indiscriminate breeding was adopted. This obliterated the good work of KVS. In 1968, 479 village blocks were functioning in various states and they covered 5 million cows and she buffaloes which was about 6.5% of the total breedable female cattle of the country.

22.3 Intensive Cattle Development Project (ICDP)

On review of functioning of key village scheme, it was revealed that it did not produce results according to the expectations. Many dairy plants which were set up during the second and third five year plan were not able to procure sufficient quantity of milk. This led to the development of yet another programme of dairy development project, This ICDPs were to be started in breeding tracks of indigenous breeds of cattle & buffaloes and in the milk sheds of large dairy projects so that established dairy plants can procure sufficient quantity of milk for processing. (Upto their installed capacities). It was emphasized to associate each ICDP with either liquid milk plant or any milk product factory. Each ICDP was to cover 1 lack breedable cow & she buffalo population. This target was kept to make a significant impact and increase the milk production in the area. For success of the scheme, it is necessary that it is implemented at the best location. Thus area having good potential for milk production & where appropriate response to cattle development can be there, were chosen. In the chosen area, the target of covering 70 percent of cattle population for breeding purpose and increasing milk production by 30 percent in a period of 5 years was kept. The government of Indian extended 100 percent central assistance for the project during the 3rd five year plan. After implementation and on completion of 2 years, these protects were transferred to plan scheme of the state government. This change led to reduced financial assistance from central government. In some of the states due to less allocation of funds, adequate provision of inputs & services could not be made.

"Major steps for the successful implementation of ICDP"

1. Controlled breeding: By the use of Artificial Insemination, cross breeding work was taken upon a massive scale. Under these programme, Indian or exotic germplasm was used for raising capacious livestock generation responsible for increased milk production.

2. Balanced feeding: Considering the wide gap of quantitative & qualitative inadequacy in the availability & requirement of feed & fodder, a huge fodder development programme was taken up in each ICDP with a view to maximize the use of high quality green fodder, there by replacing the use of concentrated feeding & thus reducing cost of milk production.

3. Veterinary healthcare: In order to protect the animals from various fatal diseases / epidemics, prophylactic vaccination programme was taken up for reducing the occurrence of rinderpest, hemorrhagic septicemia, black quarter, anthrax, foot & mouth disease etc.

4. Milk farming inputs: Provision of medium & short term credit for the purchase of milch cattle, fodder concentrated feeds, fodder seeds, chemical fertilizers, medicines etc to the milk producers through milk primary societies was one of the important part of the ICDP.

5. Assured milk marketing: Through milk primary societies, the members of the societies were assured of remunerative price of their milk throughout the year.

Conclusion: ICDP really made a good impact for increasing milk production & improving the health of dairy animals. A large number of exotic animals were imported. During 1961 to 1978, around 7500 heads of cattle of some breeds were imported viz., Jersey, Brown Swiss, Red Dane, Yorkshire, Gurneys, Holstein Frisian. Some of these exotic breeds were supplied to state governments. At the same time government of India also developed farms for multiplying the exotic breeds. At Andeshangar (Uttar Pradesh) and Hessarghatta (Karnataka) farm for Holstein Frisian were developed. At Sunabeda (Orissa), Jersey farm was established. Number of ICDP developed in each five year plan is as under.

Table 22.1 Number of ICDP developed











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