Module 2. Food safety and quality management systems

Lesson 11


11.1 Introduction

Total Quality Management (TQM) tools and techniques have been formulated since last 60 years. These tools and techniques are used to identify the potential problems, frequency of their occurrences and method to control these problems for adopting best class practices. From results of different surveys conducted, it is estimated that more than 100 TQM tools are being used so far. But in different books different tools are described. This lesson describes most commonly used tools under the umbrella of TQM.

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an integrated system of principles, methods, and best practices that provide a framework for organizations to strive for excellence in everything they do. The roots of Total Quality Management (TQM) go back to the teachings of Drucker, Juran, Deming, Ishikawa, Crosby, Feigenbaum and countless other people that have studied, practiced, and tried to refine the process of organizational management. TQM is a collection of principles, techniques, processes, and best practices that over time have been proven effective. Most all world-class organizations exhibit the majority of behaviours that are typically identified with TQM.

No two organizations have the same TQM implementation. There is no recipe for organization success, however, there are a number of great TQM models that organizations can use. These include the Deming Application Prize, the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence, the European Foundation for Quality Management, and the ISO quality management standards. Any organization that wants to improve its performance would be well served by selecting one of these models and conducting a self-assessment.

The model begins with understanding customer needs. TQM organizations have processes that continuously collect, analyze, and act on customer information. Activities are often extended to understanding competitor's customers. Developing an intimate understanding of customer needs allows TQM organizations to predict future customer behavior.

TQM organizations integrate customer knowledge with other information and use the planning process to orchestrate action throughout the organization to manage day to day activities and achieve future goals. Plans are reviewed at periodic intervals and adjusted as necessary. The planning process is the glue that holds together all TQM activity.

TQM organizations understand that customers will only be satisfied if they consistently receive products and services that meet their needs, are delivered when expected, and are priced for value. TQM organizations use the techniques of process management to develop cost-controlled processes that are stable and capable of meeting customer expectations.

TQM organizations also understand that exceptional performance today may be unacceptable performance in the future so they use the concepts of process improvement to achieve both breakthrough gains and incremental continuous improvement. Process improvement is even applied to the TQM system itself!

The final element of the TQM model is total participation. TQM organizations understand that all work is performed through people. This begins with leadership. In TQM organizations, top management takes personal responsibility for implementing, nurturing, and refining all TQM activities. They make sure people are properly trained, capable, and actively participate in achieving organizational success. Management and employees work together to create an empowered environment where people are valued.

11.2 Six Sigma

It is a business strategy to achieve excellence by applying different statistical, TQM and Project Management tools. Six Sigma originated from the field of statistics as a set of practices designed to improve manufacturing processes and limited defects, but its application was subsequently extended to other types of business processes as well. In Six Sigma, a defect is defined as any process output that does not meet customer specifications, or that could lead to creating an output that does not meet customer specifications. The term ‘Six Sigma’ referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. Processes that operate with ‘six sigma quality’ over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better. Bill Smith first formulated the particulars of the methodology at Motorola in 1986. Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control, TQM, and ‘Zero Defects’, based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Taguchi and others.

Six Sigma doctrines assert that
  • Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e. reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success.
  • Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled.
  • Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management.
11.2.1 Methods

Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle. These methodologies, composed of five phases each, bear the acronyms DMAIC (Define Measure Analysis Improve Control) and DMADV (Define Measure Analyze Design and Verify).

11.2.2 DMAIC

It is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process. DMAIC is pronounced as ‘duh-may-ick’.

11.2.3 DMADV

It is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs. DMADV is pronounced as ‘duh-mad-vee’.

Table 11.1 Differences between DMAIC and DMADV

t 11.1

11.3 Lean Manufacturing

It is a way of manufacturing that increases speed and reduces unnecessary wastes. Lean Manufacturing (also called Toyota Production System, TPS) is a production system inspired by the Japanese concept of kaizen (the strategy of continuous improvement). Unlike kaizen, Lean has a focus not only on quality control but also on quantity control to eliminate waste and reduce costs. There are many definitions and viewpoints for ‘Lean Manufacturing’, but the main goal of ‘Lean Manufacturing’ is to eliminate waste. ‘Waste’ refers especially to excess input materials and useless processing steps. The goal of ‘eliminating waste’ may also be stated as providing exactly what the customer values for the lowest cost of production. This will maximize profit per unit. The word ‘Lean’ implies ‘cutting the fat’ or ‘trimming waste’, where ‘fat’ or ‘waste’ refer to whatever is not valued by the customer. So another way of expressing the ‘Lean Manufacturing’ goal is to only use materials and processes that add value for the customer.

11.4 Kaizen

Kaizen (Japanese for ‘improvement’ or ‘change for the better’) refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, supporting business processes and management. It has been applied in health-care, psychotherapy, life-coaching, government, banking and many other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes such as purchasing and logistics that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain. By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world and is now being implemented in many other venues besides just business and productivity.

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:
  • Standardize an operation
  • Measure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)
  • Gauge measurements against requirements
  • Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity
  • Standardize the new, improved operations
  • Continue cycle ad infinitum
This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA. Masaaki Imai made the term famous in his book Kaizen: The Key to Japan's Competitive Success.

11.4.1 The five main elements of kaizen
  • Teamwork
  • Personal discipline
  • Improved morale
  • Quality circles
  • Suggestions for improvement
11.5 Lean Six Sigma

It is combination of Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing concept to reduce errors and increase productivity side by side. ‘Lean’ and ‘Six Sigma’ methodologies seem quite different but a company can benefit by wisely uniting these approaches. Based on the above simplified lists, a Six Sigma project would concentrate on analysis and finish by implementing rigid controls. A ‘Lean’ project seems to assume the analysis is complete, since it does not explain how to minimize or maximize. Also, the ‘Lean’ project gives more autonomy to workers, at least to make suggestions for improvements (Table 11.1).

Table 11.2 Comparison between six sigma project and lean project methodology

t 11.2

11.6 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

It is a new way of carrying maintenance activities and invented by the Japanese. TPM is a manufacturing-led initiative that creates a collaborative approach among all stakeholders within an organization — particularly between operations and maintenance — in an effort to achieve production efficiency, uninterrupted operations and ensure a quick, proactive maintenance response to prevent equipment-specific problems. The goal of TPM is to create a production environment free from mechanical breakdowns and technical disturbances by involving everybody in maintenance duties without heavily relying on mechanics or engineers. Modernization and the ongoing automation in different industries have noticeably amplified the gap between operators and their machines. Years ago, machine operators were limited to manning their respective posts. Whenever there is a mechanical trouble, operators would stop working and would call in the mechanics to fix the problem. Even with the slightest snag, operators would leave everything to maintenance for fear of making the problem worse and besides they don’t want to take on the mechanics’ jobs. On the other hand, the traditional mechanics could love the smell of a breakdown. They know that they have become indispensable specialists in the trade — they are assured of a stable job every time a fix is needed. So, the vicious cycle goes on and on and the aftermath of which is immense amount of waste: man hours, production time, opportunity lost and ballooning maintenance expense. But with the adoption and adaptation of Total Productive Maintenance, the vicious cycle has come to an end. Today, TPM builds on the classical Japanese concepts of autonomous maintenance with process mapping for cross-functional duties. Coupled with the right tools and training, TPM equips the operators the necessary skills to address mechanical or equipment-related issues. Calling the engineers and mechanics is no longer necessary since operators are already prepared and confident in dealing with the problems. Undoubtedly, Total Productive Maintenance is one of the most effective ways to create a lean organization with reduced cycle time and improved operational efficiency.

11.7 Environmental Management System (ISO 14001 )

It is standard given by ISO to facilitate organization to reduce their wastes that are harmful for the environment. ISO 14001 was first published in 1996 and specifies the actual requirements for an environmental management system. It applies to those environmental aspects which the organization has control and over which it can be expected to have an influence. ISO 14001 is often seen as the corner stone standard of the ISO 14000 series. However, it is not only the most well known but is the only ISO 14000 standard against which it is currently possible to be certified by an external certification authority. Having stated this, it does not itself state specific environmental performance criteria.

This standard is applicable to any organization that wishes to:
  • Implement, maintain and improve an environmental management system
  • Assure itself of its conformance with its own stated environmental policy (those policy commitments of course must be made)
  • Demonstrate conformance
  • Ensure compliance with environmental laws and regulations
  • Seek certification of its environmental management system by an external third party organization
  • Make a self-determination of conformance
11.8 Laboratory Management System (ISO/ IEC 17025)

It is a standard for laboratories for their accreditation. ISO/ IEC 17025:2005 specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and/ or calibrations, including sampling. It covers testing and calibration performed using standard methods, non-standard methods, and laboratory-developed methods. It is applicable to all organizations performing tests and/ or calibrations. These include, for example, first-, second- and third-party laboratories, and laboratories where testing and/ or calibration forms part of inspection and product certification. ISO/ IEC 17025:2005 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing and/ or calibration activities. ISO/ IEC 17025:2005 is for use by laboratories in developing their management system for quality, administrative and technical operations. Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies may also use it in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories. ISO/ IEC 17025:2005 is not intended to be used as the basis for certification of laboratories. Compliance with regulatory and safety requirements on the operation of laboratories is not covered by ISO/ IEC 17025:2005.

11.9 5S

It is methodology for improvement in daily and business life in five steps. The 5S are pre-requisites for any improvement program. As waste is potential gain, so eliminating waste is a gain. 5S philosophy focuses on effective work place organization, implies work environment, reduction in waste while improving quality and safety. There is no hope for efficiency or quality improvement with dirty work place, waste of time and scrap. The 5S philosophy is becoming a hallmark in the world of manufacturing. The system hinges on five Japanese concepts: seiri, seiton, seison, seiketsu, and shitsuke. This good housekeeping approach can lead to a smoother running operation. It is a program that can be adapted to other business models as well, bringing the Kaizen way to a variety of workplaces. Kaizen is a process of improvement that requires efforts for the entire team, from management to the workers. It is a series of improvement models they come together to create a faster, better way of working without high cost and maximizes efficiency.
The five S stands for the five first letters of these Japanese words (Table 11.2)

Table 11.3 5S Principle

t 11.3

11.10 The PDCA Cycles

Imai stated the Japanese executives recast the Deming wheel from the 1950 JUSE seminar into the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle.

1. Design

Plan: Product design corresponds to the planning phase of management

2. Production

Do: Production corresponds to doing-making, or working on the product that was designed

3. Sales

Check: Sales figures confirm whether the customer is satisfied

4. Research

Action: In case of a complaint being filed, it has to be incorporated into the Planning phase, and action taken for the next round of efforts

The resulting PDCA cycle is shown in Fig. 11.1. The four step cycle for problem solving includes planning (definition of a problem and a hypothesis about possible causes and solutions), doing (implementing), checking (evaluating the results) and action (back to plan if the results are unsatisfactory or standardization if the results are satisfactory). The PDCA cycle emphasized the prevention of error recurrence by establishing standards and the ongoing modification of those standards. Even before the PDCA cycle is employed, it is essential that the current standards be stabilized. The process of stabilization is often called the SDCA (standardize-do-check-action) cycle. Ishikawa stated: ‘If standards and regulations are not revised in six months, it is proof that no one is seriously using them.’


Fig. 11.1 PDCA cycle

11.11 Quality Circles

It is group of people, who identify problems and give their solution for improvement in daily life and business. Quality circles were first seen in the United States in the 1950’s and later developed by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa in Japan in the 1960’s. Circles were re-exported to the US in the early 1970’s and brought total quality management in 1980’s resulting in reduction in the use of quality circles and can be a useful tool if used properly. Voluntary groups of employees who work on similar tasks or share an area of responsibility can participate in quality circle. They agree to meet on a regular basis to discuss and solve problems related to work. They operate on the principle that employee participation in decision-making and problem-solving improves the quality of work. It enhances productivity, improve quality and boost employee morale.
Last modified: Saturday, 29 September 2012, 10:44 AM