Lesson 32. FAT SPREADS
32.2 Classification of Spreads
Fat Spreads are classified as,
2. Non-Dairy Spreads: Wherein Vegetable fat with or without milk fat used as a source of fat
In Indian contest fat spreads can further classified as follows.
2. Reduced fat spread: Fat percent will be between 60 – 70%fat
Eg: Amul lite: 10% Milk fat and 49% vegetable fat.
Based on fat content spread and margarine products are as classified as follows.
(b) Mixed fat spread.....made of a mixture of milk fat with any one or more of hydrogentated, un-hydrogenated, refined edible vegetable oils or interesterified fat.
(c) Vegetable fat spread……made of a mixture of any two or more of hydrogenated, unhydrogenated, refined vegetable oils or interesterified fat.
32.3 FSSR-2011 Definition For Fat Spread
According to FSSR-2011, fat spread is a product in the form of water in oil emulsion,
· Moisture should not be more than 56% and not less than 16% by weight,
· It may contain edible salt not exceeding 2% by weight in aqueous phase,
· Starch not less than 100ppm and not more than 150ppm,
· Diacetyl may be used as flavouring agent not exceeding 4.0ppm
· It may contain sequestering agent,
· Permitted emulsifier and stabilizer, permitted antioxidants (BHA or TBHQ) not exceeding 0.02% of the fat content of the spread,
· It may contain annatto and/or carotene as colouring agents,
· It shall be free from animal body fat, mineral oil and wax,
· Vegetable fat spread shall contain raw or refined Sesame oil (Til oil) in sufficient quantity, (so that when separated fat is mixed with refined groundnut oil in the proportion of 20:80 the red colour produced by Baudouin test shall not be lighter than 2.5 red units in 1 cm cell on a Lovibond scale.)
· The vegetable fat spread shall contain not less than 25 IU synthetic vitamin 'A' per gram at the time of packing
· Acid value of extracted fat should not be more than 0.5.
· Melting point of Extracted fat should not be more than 370C, in case of vegetable fat spread using capillary method.
· Unsaponifiable matter of extracted fat
(b) In case of vegetable fat spread Not more than 1.5 per cent
(c) Acid value of extracted fat Not more than 0.5
32.4 Labeling of Fat Spread
32.5 Manufacturing Process of Fat Spread
In general, production of spreads can be divided into the following parts:
· Emulsion preparation
· Minor ingredients such as emulsifier, lecithin, flavour and colour are dissolved in the fat phase before emulsification. Fat-soluble flavour and colour, butter flavour and β-carotene are added to achieve products which taste and look like butter. In addition, β-carotene has pro-vitamin A activity.
The major ingredients in the water phase are
·Salt and preservative, whey powder, skimmed milk powder or other types of milk can be added.
· Since high water content is available n spreads, stabiliser(s) system is needed in order to have the necessary stability in the final crystallised product. Water-soluble flavour and colour can also be added, but are primarily used in low fat spreads. Alginates, pectin and carrageenans have a good water binding effect and gives stable emulsions.
Fig. 32.1 Schematic diagram of manufacture of vegetable fat spread.
Prior to entering the crystallisation equipment, the emulsion is pasteurised, preferably in a scraped surface heat exchanger. A typical pasteurization process include a heating and holding sequence of the emulsion at 75-85°C for 16 sec. and subsequently a cooling process to a temperature of 45-55°C. The end temperature depends on the melting point of the fat phase: the higher the melting point, the higher the temperature.
The emulsion is pumped to the crystallisation line by means of a high pressure plunger pump (HPP). The crystallisation line for the production of margarine and related products typically consists of a high pressure SSHE which is cooled by ammonia or Freon type cooling media. The heart of the crystallisation line is the high pressure SSHE, in which the warm emulsion is super-cooled and crystallised on the inner surface of the chilling tube. The emulsion is efficiently scraped off by the rotating scrapers, thus the emulsion is chilled and kneaded simultaneously. When the fat in the emulsion crystallises, the fat crystals form a three-dimensional network entrapping the water droplets and the liquid oil, resulting in products with properties of plastic semi-solid nature. The crystallisation process, the processing conditions and the processing parameters have a great influence on the characteristics of the final spread product.
Limitations of conventional process: Using conventional mixers and agitators several difficulties can arise
ii. Long processing times are often required to complete hydration.
iii. Poor hydration may lead to unsatisfactory “mouthfeel”, and an unstable product
iv. Leading to storage problems once the product has been opened.
Source and role of fat: Milk fat - cream, butter, butter oil, vegetable fat - sunflower, corn, soyabean & groundnut oil are preferred, milk fat fractions / vegetable oil fractions can also be used. Fat provides structure, energy, and taste including creaminess. It is acarrier of flavour and vitamins. It is good source of essential fatty acids. It improves spreadibility, firmness, plasticity depending on amount of fat used in the spread.
Source and role of Protein: Milk Protein - SMP, Whey Powder, WPC; Vegetable protein - Soy protein isolate Improve organoleptic, functional and nutritional properties Proteins play a role in viscosity, water holding capacity as well. Protein helps in enhancing emulsion stability of the spreads.
Emulsifiers: Fat soluble emulsifiers are preferred because of fat is the major portion in the product also fat present in continuous phase. Monoglycerides of saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, egg yolk solids are used at a level of 0.1 to 0.6%. These emulsifiers help in reducing the size of aqueous droplets and create stabilizing films at the water/oil interface, so product will be more softer and spreadable.
Stabilizers: Especially important in reduced/low fat spreads wherein high water holding ability of stabilizer improves body & texture of the spread. They help in increasing the viscosity and also to inhibit the coalescence of aqueous phase droplets during processing. Carboxy methy cellulose(CMC), Modified starch, Sodium alginate, starch can be used as stabilizers at a level of 0.1 to 0.5%.
Following are the two typical recipes of mixed fat spreads
32.7 Shelf Life and Storage
Various factors influences the shelf life of the fat spreads, they are
ii. Process treatment
iii. Type of ingredients
iv. Salt content
v. pH of the product
vi. Temperature of storage
vii. Preservative level
Refrigerated Storage is preferred for long life at 5°C, shelf life varies from 90days to 180days. Processing conditions & formulations also have influence on the shelf life of the product.
* Confectionery industry
* Bakery Industry