Module 4. Procurement of milk

Lesson 9

9.1 Introduction

In rural India milk production is largely a subsidiary activity to agriculture in contrast to organized dairying in western countries. Small farmers and landless labourers usually maintain one to three milch animals. As a result, small quantities of milk are produced by each of the dairy farmers who are widely spread all over the country. This situation makes the task of milk collection and transportation complex. For efficient transportation, planning of routes by means of extensive survey is most important. In this connection, one must consider the availability of milk, road access to the milk collection points and their distance from the site of the dairy plant. The collected milk is generally filled in cans for transportation to the chilling center or directly to the milk plant. Milk must be brought to the chilling or dairy plant within three hours of milking.

9.2 Transportation of Milk

The milk should be transported to the dairies under chilled conditions (< 4°C) to prevent bacterial growth. In India, raw milk collected at various collection centers in the rural areas is dispatched to the dairy plant in two ways:

9.2.1 Transporting milk through cans

Suitable when milk volume handled is low.

9.2.2 Transporting milk through tankers (2000 to 10,000 liters of chilled milk)

This method is useful especially for transporting chilled milk from bulk milk coolers or chilling centers. Refrigerated/insulated tanker (Fig. 9.1) is important for transporting market milk, butter milk and other perishable dairy products.

9.3 Advantages of Tanker Over Cans
  • quick mode of transportation
  • low transport cost per liter
  • better temperature control
  • less risk of contamination
  • time and labors savings
  • overall savings in detergents
Fig 9.1

Fig. 9.1 Road tanker

9.4 Transport Systems in India

9.4.1 Short distances

9.4.2 Long distances



  • The tankers or wagons should be suitably insulated so as to permit not more than 1-1.5°C rise in temperature up to 12 h of journey.
  • The wagons should be well insulated and solid CO2 maybe used.
Last modified: Monday, 29 October 2012, 5:02 AM