Wheat Products

Lesson 7 : Specific Cereals

Wheat Products

  • Whole-wheat flour


    It contains the finely ground bran, germ and endosperm of the whole kernel. Higher fat content of the germ, whole wheat flour is more difficult to keep and sometimes becomes rancid in storage under poor conditions.

    Wheat flour is fortified with defatted soya flour ‘Poushtic atta’ (maximum up to 10 .0%). This not only improves quantity and quality of protein but also improves functional characteristics such as moisture retention and less oil absorption in the end product.


    Iron fortified wheat flour has been successfully used to prevent iron deficiency anaemia in some western countries. A study conducted at NIN (1998-99) revealed that ferrous sulphate is a cost effective and good source of iron in the process of wheat flour fortification.

  • Maida: The bran and germ are separated in making white flour or maida. It is more bland in taste and more easily digested.


  • Semolina: It is coarsely ground endosperm and its chemical composition is similar to that of white flour. It is used in the manufacture of macaroni products. It is roasted before storing to save it from insects and worms.


  • Macaroni Products: These products are also called pasta or alimentary pastes. These products include macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and noodles. The main ingredient in the macaroni group of products is a special durum flour of high-gluten content. Durum wheat is used because of its yellow amber colour, nutty flavour and also because they hold their shape and firm texture when cooked. The starchy endosperm of wheat is coarsely ground into semolina which is made with water into thick dough. The dough is placed in a cylinder, the lower end of which is fitted with a disc perforated with openings and as the dough is forced through the openings various shapes are formed. Macaroni is a tube form, spaghetti may be either tube or rod, vermicelli is a tiny rod and noodles are flat strips.

    Different kinds of wheat are used for different purposes. For cakes and breads soft wheat, for macaroni hard wheat are used. In India, Punjab wheat is used for making chapatti and samba wheat is used for rava (upma) purpose. Maida is used for making sweets and snacks.
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Last modified: Thursday, 8 December 2011, 10:58 AM