Vector Control

Health Hygiene & Sanitation

Lesson 18 : Vector Management

Vector Control

Vector Control includes

  • Surveillance of the vector in the community
  • Control methods proper
    • Eradication
    • Reduction in the vector population

Surveillance of Vector Population

  • To know the problematic vector in the community
  • To know the geographical distribution and density of problematic vector
  • Vector population changes over the time
  • To know the impact of vector control strategies
  • To know the habits and habitats of the vector

Eradication of vector – pre-requisites

  • Availability of high resource
  • Feasible only in countries with less geographical area
  • May not be possible for developing countries like India

Reduction of Vector Population

  1. Anti-larval measures

    • Environmental control
    • Chemical control
    • Biological control

  2. Anti-adult measures

    • Residual sprays
    • Space sprays
    • Genetic control

Reducing Human Exposure

  1. Shifting of settlements away from vector breeding places
  2. Mosquito-proof housing
  3. Improved sanitation and hygiene measures like
    • Regular water supply
    • Waste water and excreta disposal
    • Laundry
    • Bathing and recreation facility etc. to prevent or discourage human contact infested area

Limiting Exposure to Vectors

  1. Avoid bites
  2. Avoid areas infested with vectors.
  3. Perform vector checks if it is unavoidable to keep away from areas with ticks
  4. Wear preferably light colored full sleeved clothes
  5. Wear shoes with pants tucked into socks
  6. Control vectors around homes and in community by keeping clean

Personal Protection

  1. Mosquito net offers protection against mosquito bite
  2. The opening in net should be less than 0.0475 inch
  3. Screening of building with copper or bronze gauze with 16 apertures/inch. It is costly.
  4. Use of mosquito repellents;
  5. Diethyltoluamide, indalone, dimethyl pthalate, dimethyl carbate, ethyl hexanediol etc. act for 18-20 hours


Human protection using vertebrate Hosts

Vertebrates like

  1. Pigs, birds, horse (JE)
  2. Monkeys (KFD, Chikungunya, Yellow fever)
  3. Rodents, Squirrels (KFD)
  4. Cattle which are responsible for population explosion in ticks

Integrated Vector Control

Combination of available control methods in management of problematic vectors in

    1. Most effective
    2. Most economical
    3. Safe manner and
    4. Long lasting ways to maintain the vector population at acceptable level

Inter- sectoral coordination

  1. Intersectoral coordination means cooperation among all related agencies.
  2. It is well known that the activities of other sectors can contribute to the breeding and spread of mosquitoes or can help to limit and control mosquitoes
  3. Intersectoral collaboration starts with exchange of information.
  4. It should start from high level official to community level, i.e. concerned ministries, govt. departments, statutory boards, non-govt. organization, private sectors, international and national organization, etc.

Host control

  • Elimination or reduction in the non-human host may not be feasible-because
    • Occurrence and abundance of non-human host
    • More than one host involvement
    • Dealing with animals that have economic or sentimental value
    • Control of small mammals of the forest floor pose a serious problems which can not be handled easily

Control Measures

  • Rodents can be handled by older methods
  • Trapping and poisoned food baits for rodents even by using aircraft for scattering poisoned baits
  • Avoiding cattle entering into the forest or applying insecticides to the body of the cattle
  • Pigs
    • Immunization
    • Slaughtering
    • Use of mosquito proof piggeries
    • Segregating pigs at least 4-5 km away from human dwellings

Human host-Immunization and personal protection

  1. Japanese Encephalitis vaccine
  2. Killed vaccine against KFD
  3. Dengue vaccine in the research phase
Last modified: Saturday, 28 April 2012, 10:49 AM