High levels are present in colostrum and it promotes normal growth.
Intake of sodium by breast fed infant is less than 1/3rd of one fed on cow’s milk.
Amount of sodium present in human milk is adequate.
A pregnant woman with goitre gives birth to infant with cretinism. These children are mentally retarded which is irreversible even after treatment.
RDA is 350?g. Breast milk contains sufficient amounts of vitamin A.
A healthy infant at birth has sufficient stores of vitamin A in liver which will last for 6 months.
Excess vitamin A leads to anorexia, hyper irritability, desquamation of skin.
Very essential for utilization and retention of calcium and phosphorus
Neither human nor cow’s milk has vitamin D.
RDA is placed between 200- 400 IU of vitamin D/ day. This requirement may be obtained through exposure to sunlight. Avoid large amounts of vitamin D to prevent hypervitaminosis D.
Food & Nutrition board has prescribed 5 IU of Vitamin E during infancy.
Cow’s milk is a poor source of vitamin E
New born babies are susceptible to haemorrhage. Therefore a single dose of 1 mg of vitamin K immediately after birth will prevent haemorrhage
Breast fed baby is more susceptible to vitamin K deficiency than artificially fed infant
Excess dosage is harmful.
Vitamin – B complex:
RDA for B vitamin is based on weight of infant which is based on calorie consumption. If mothers are suffering from thiamine deficiency very little thiamine content is present in breast milk. Thiamine deficiency in infants leads to
Anorexia, vomiting, breathlessness and death may also occur unless treatment with thiamine is given intravenously.
Onset of infantile beri beri is sudden in infants who are healthy. Therefore intramuscular injection of thiamine is given. If antibiotics are taken by infant, the requirement of vitaminB12 increases.
RDA prescribed by ICMR is 25mg. Human milk contains twice the amount of ascorbic acid in comparison to cow’s milk. But both are not good source of vitamin C. Less vitamin C is present in breast milk, deficiency of vitamin C in mothers and the infant develops scurvy. Therefore fruit juice should be introduced from 6th month onwards to prevent scurvy.