There is a great demand for the nutrients involved in bone development during pregnancy. These include calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, magnesium and fluoride.
There is an increase in the absorption of calcium early in pregnancy and the mother stores it in her bones. During the last trimester, the fetal bones begin to calcify and a dramatic shift of calcium across the placenta occurs – about 300mg of calcium per day are transferred to the fetus. Sufficient calcium intake during pregnancy is meant to conserve maternal bones. More over women below 25 years of age are still actively depositing minerals in their bones and adequate calcium is required by them.
Phosphorus is closely linked with calcium but generally there is no problem with phosphorus and it often exceeds recommendations. Vitamin D plays a vital role in calcium absorption and utilization. It stimulates calcium absorption from the gastro intestinal tract, retention by the kidneys and also helps to withdrawal calcium from the bones. Magnesium is involved in the activation of vitamin D and raising blood calcium. Fluoride is necessary for the mineralization of teeth but no supplements are recommended.