Preoperative Nutritional Care

Nutrition for Special Groups 3(3+0)

Lesson 41 : Surgery

Preoperative Nutritional Care

Nutrient Reserves

  • Nutrient reserves can be built up prior to elective surgery to fortify a patients
  • Protein deficiencies are common.
  • Sufficient kilocalories are required
  • Extra carbohydrates maintain glycogen stores
  • Vitamin / mineral deficiencies should be corrected
  • Water balance should be assessed

Immediate Preoperative Period

  • Patients aren’t typically directed not to take anything orally for at least eight hours prior to surgery.
  • Prior to gastrointestinal surgery, a nonresidue diet may be prescribed.
  • Nonresidue elemental formulas provide complete diet in liquid form.

Why is it recommended to avoid eating eight hours before surgery? (to prevent aspiration of food during anesthesia and to prevent complications due to food in stomach) What can aspiration cause? How does anesthesia contribute to risk of aspiration? What complications could occur with food in the stomach during surgery? What are the implications for emergency surgery?

Non residue diet:

  1. Diet includes those foods that are free of fiber, seeds and skins.
  2. Prohibited foods include fruits, vegetables, cheese, milk, potatoes, unrefined rice, fats, and pepper.
  3. Vitamin / mineral supplements are required for prolonged non residue diet.

Post surgical Nonresidue Diet

  1. Non residue diet plus:
  2. Processed cheese, mild cream cheeses
  3. Potatoes
  4. Bread without bran.
  5. All desserts except those containing fruit and nuts
  6. Condiments as desired.
Last modified: Thursday, 10 May 2012, 8:13 AM