Granulation and Remodeling

Nutrition for Special Groups 3(3+0)

Lesson 42 : Trauma

Granulation and Remodeling

Once the wound is free of debris and new blood vessels have begun to form, repair cells called fibroblasts lay down a scaffolding of collagen. This collagen network matures into granulation tissue, which forms the foundation of scars. The granulation tissue matures as the collagen fibers become increasingly interlinked. Externally, the scar can be seen to contract and close the wound, and this process of collagen maturation and remodeling continues for a lifetime.

The response is characterised by an acute catabolic reaction, which precedes the metabolic process of recovery and repair. This metabolic response to trauma was divided into an ebb and flow phase by Cuthbertson.

The ebb phase corresponds to the period of severe shock characterised by depression of enzymatic activity and oxygen consumption. Cardiac output is below normal, core temperature may be subnormal, and a lactic acidosis is present.

The flow phase can be divided into

  • a catabolic phase with fat and protein mobilisation associated with increased urinary nitrogen excretion and weight loss, and
  • An anabolic phase with restoration of fat and protein stores, and weight gain.

In the flow phase, the body is hypermetabolic, cardiac output and oxygen consumption are increased, and there is increased glucose production. Lactic acid may be normal.








maintenance of blood volume; catecholamines

decreased BMR, decr. Temp, decreased O2 consumption; vasoconstriction; increased CO, increased HR; acute phase proteins

Catecholamines, Cortisol, Aldosterone



3-10 days

maintenance of energy

incr. BMR, incr. Temp., incr. O2 consumption, negative nitrogen balance

Incr. glucagon, insulin, cortisol, catecholamines - but insulin resistance


10-60 days

replacement of lost tissue

positive nitrogen balance

Growth hormone, IGF

Last modified: Thursday, 10 May 2012, 11:04 AM