Course of the Infection

Nutrition for Special Groups 3(3+0)

Lesson 47 : Hiv Aids

Course of the Infection

Primary HIV infection occurs 2-4 weeks after exposure. Mononucleosis like syndrome is seen which includes symptoms like swollen lymph glands, fever, loss of appetite etc. persistant generalized lymph adenopathy is also seen in some patients.

Advanced HIV infection is denoted by signs like fever, night sweats, skin disorders, muscle pain, gastro intestinal tract problems and certain infections. Various gastrointestinal problems are seen in HIV infection. Oral and esophageal manifestations like candidiasis lead to a decreased food intake. Fungal growth occurs in the orapharynx and esophagus causing inflammation, decreased salivation and nausea. Oral warts occur as a result of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection. Neoplasm lead to esophageal obstruction and dysphagia.

Intestinal pathogens cause colitis and inflammation of stomach and small intestine. Diarrhoea, steatorrhea, fever, abdominal pain are common symptoms. In severe cases perforation of gastro intestinal tract may also occur. Besides infections, AIDS enteropathy causes non specific inflammatory changes without any pathogens or neoplasm. It leads to villus atrophy and maturation defect in enterocytes. Zinc deficiency and malnutrition could be possible causes.

Malabsorption and mild to severe diarrhoea which is often not controlled by antimicrobial treatment is a major symptom of AIDS. Hypermetabolism, fever and rapid wasting are common. Cachxia is seen which is not alleviated by proper nutrition alone; manipulations of intermediary metabolism are necessary.

Last modified: Friday, 11 May 2012, 6:40 AM