Deficiencies of the energy releasing vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin are present in individuals with HIV. Low plasma levels of vitamins B6 and B12 are widespread in HIV infection. Low B6 levels are associated with low natural killer cell activity. HIV patients require supplementation of all B vitamins in multiples of the RDA to achieve normal plasma levels.
Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in HIV infection and is associated with disease progression and mortality. Maternal vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased HIV mother to child transmission.
Vitamin E is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. Studies show that vitamin E supplementation may be beneficial in delaying HIV disease progression.
HIV and IRON Anemia is a common symptom of HIV infection and a prognostic marker of future disease progression or death. Treating severe anemia in patients with HIV is critical, because recovery from anemia is associated with increased length of survival in these patients. However low hemoglobin, hematocrit or serum iron are not sufficient indicators of iron deficiency in HIV infection. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin or transferrin saturation assays should be used before iron supplementation.
HIV and selenium in patients with HIV infection, selenium deficiency is correlated with total lymphocyte count. It is important to maintain adequate selenium status in HIV infection and supplementation of selenium and other antioxidants can help in fighting HIV infection.
HIV and ZINC Studies indicate that adequate zinc status helps in preventing the progress of HIV disease. An adequate amount of Zinc intake decreased the risk of dying from HIV related disease by 33%. Zinc maintains the integrity of the immune system and its deficiency is linked with poor survival in individuals with HIV infection.