Micronutrient deficiencies are common in HIV infected persons due to:
- Poor dietary intake
- reduced absorption
- increased nutrient losses that occur in PLHIV beginning from the early stages of HIV infection
- The relationship between micronutrient status, multivitamin use and slower disease progression has been documented in studies of PLHIV in the United States and Africa.
- Study in Thailand (n= 481) – death rate lower in PLHIV receiving micronutrient supplementation (AIDS 2003, 17:2461-2469)
Antioxidant supplementation no significant affect on viral load (Batterham et al , 2001)
Nutrients that affect the immune system:
- Vitamin A, B2, B6, Biotin, Folate, Niacin and Pantothenic acid. Antioxidant, vitamins and minerals
- Vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, Zinc and Selenium.
- Infection increases demand for and utilization of antioxidant vitamins (A, E,C) and minerals (zinc, selenium and iron).
- Studies have shown deficiencies in Vitamin A, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, Folate, Iron and Calcium in PLHIV.