Stone flooring

Floor And Floor Treatments 3 (1+2)


Stone flooring

Stone tiles and slabs range from the economical kota stone, thandur, kadapa to costlier variety of marble and granite ffwith a wide variety of colors. The advantages of these natural stones are manifold. These are very durable, easy to maintain and good for heavy traffic areas. The intricacies of patterns and designs can be achievement and it depends on the designer’s talents and creativity. Although stone is extremely hard wearing but cold and noisy. It looks unattractive if stained. Costs vary according to type. A stone floor demands an appropriate setting. It is perfect for the corridors, lobbies, halls and kitchens. Marble and granite, due to their ease of maintenance are extensively used in public places such as hotels, hospitals and corporate offices. Some stones are more porous and such stone can be sealed based on supplier advice.


It is best known natural stone. Most of the marbles are made up of naturally occurring compositions of calciumff carbonate. It is a hard wearing material. It is a polished natural material. It comes in many beautiful veined shades. It is expensive and difficult to cut. It is available in slabs and tiles. Commonly used marbles range from Adanga, Alberts, and Udaipur green, pink. Now the rare and most top quality marbles white Makrana with or without black or grey streaks. Marbles are quarried mainly in Rajsthan. It can take beautiful polish because of its heaviness it can crack easily and difficult to install.


Granite is preferred for the durability and high glossy polish. It is extensively quarried in the south, except the pink vfvariety in Rajasthan. Colors range from black, grey, brown and pink( red). Granite is a hard igneous stone i.e produced by heat or the action of volcano and solidified from a molten state. It is made of quartz, mineral, feldspar and some mica. It is available both in slab and in tile form. Slabs are cut and polished in a factory. It needs processing and many processing units to cut into ½” thickness. Usually the tiles are available in 1’x 2’size and also in square. This cut size is also known as dimensioned stone tile. These stones are graded to various groups ranging for A to D. the top grade(A) is uniform and consistent and it can be layed without much fear off breaking them.

  • Characteristics:
  • Susceptible to serve damage from humidity and acid which occurs with the stones themselves.
  • In the natural environment the effect of humidity and acids are controlled by evaporation.
  • If stones are coated with material which prevents natural evaporation and accumulate within the stone it will cause them to break down internally and eventually crack, powder and chip off the surface (spell).
  • Marble gets stains easily.
  • The vitreosity of stone varies. For instance marble is porous but granite is usually dense.
Laying Technique
  • Must be laid in cement bed on concrete subfloor with damp course.
  • Stones can be layed with thin mortar.
  • After installation they require 24 hours for setting and require curing.
  • Needs polishing.
  • No surface treatment.
  • Do not use acid and alkaline cleaner.
  • Can be maintained with sweeping and mopping with less water.
Quarry tile

Traditionally associated with country homes. They are usually square or rectangular and come in a range of colors bgtt from buff, yellow, red, brown, blue and black. Often it is referred as unglazed terracotta tile. They are made from unrefined extruded high silica alumina clay to an almost glass like hardness. These tiles can be used with under floor heating and are cheap but depends on thickness. These tiles are used in kitchen and entrance because of pervious to water. They are available in various surfaces for certain advantages. For instance to increase the slip resistance on watery or greasy floor, surface finish is given. From the safety point of view these are advantageous. However, it can be a problem to mop. Quarry tiles include terecotta, kadapa, shabhad, and slate. These are made to ½” to 3/4“ thickness. They come in various sizes and shapes i.e. 4 to 12” squares, hexagons, rectangles. These can be either semi vitreous or vitreous (water absorption varies). They can be glazed or left unglazed but unglazed must be sealed for protection against moisture and stains.

  • They are fairly noisy
  • Stain resistance
  • They are cold
  • They are hard
  • Will break if it is dropped
  • They are naturally resistant to scrubbing and wear.
Laying technique
  • They are laid on concrete sub- floor
  • Must be laid in cement bed on concrete subfloor with damp course.
  • Stones can be layed with thin mortar.
  • After installation they require 24 hours for setting and require curing
  • Mop with a brush and a wet vacuum.
  • Needs waxing.
Last modified: Wednesday, 22 February 2012, 9:27 AM