The word tile is derived from the French tuile derived from Latin word tegula meaning a roof tile composed of baked clay. Ceramic tile are formed by ceramic slurry which is cast in a mould and fired. Tiling was extensively used by the sinhalase kings of ancient Srilanka. They used polished stone tile for flooring in swimming pool.
Historically tile has been used for roofing, wall decoration, for flooring and for walking path steps for thousands of years. Its birth place is difficult to track down but because of it’s casual use it has preserved throughout the ages because of it’s common use and popular qualities viz, durability, resistance to moisture and attractive visual features.
Tile flooring has many different materials ranging from ceramic, stone, and glass. The most common one is ceramic. Outdoor tiles are much less seen although they are used in garden and walkways. Tile is a manufactured or manmade product of hand wearing material such as ceramic, stone, glass. Floor tiles are set into martor consisting of sand, and cement. The gap or space between the tiles are filled with sanded or unsanded filling material.
From 1845 to 1872 Linoleum remains popular. In 1845 it was first invented and patented. In the year 1860’s it was first manufactured. Linoleum remained popular until world war-II. After world war is easy to maintain and durable vinyl floor was introduced. In 1933 Vinyl made it’s big splash in Chicago. Because of the scarcity of vinyl material during war period vinyl flooring was not marketed widely until the late 1940’s. Originally it was used only in high traffic areas. But today it is the most popular choice for flooring especially for commercial and public buildings. In 1950’s demand for resilient flooring grew. During 1960’s cushioned vinyl floors and “no-wax” resilient floors were introduced to provide underfoot comfort and ease of maintenance. During last 20 years vinyl resilient flooring material is available with enhanced slip resistance treatment.
For the first time during 12th to 13th century’s rubber floor tiles were introduced but declined in demand towards the end of 17th century. In 1894 Philadelphia architect Frank Fumess patented a system for rubber floor tiles which could be laid in geometric pattern to produce eye catching design. The first major installation of rubber flooring was at the Frankfurt Airport in 1969.
The earliest known examples of mosaics made of different materials were found at a temple building in Ubaid, Mesopotamia, and are dated to the second half of 3rd millennium BC. They consist of pieces of colored stones, shells and ivory. Excavations at SusaSusa and Choqa Zanbil show evidence of the first glazed tiles, dating from around 1500 BC. However, mosaic patterns were not used until the times of Sassanid Empire and Roman influence.
Mosaic is the decorative art of creating pictures and patterns on a surface by setting small colored pieces of glass, marble or other materials in a bed of cement, plaster or adhesive. Employed as a form of interior or exterior decoration, and originally developed in ancient Greece. Mosaics were developed extensively by Roman craftsmen, mostly in the form of pavements. Later, during the era of Byzantine art, artists specialized in creating mosaic designs for walls, and were renowned for their shimmering masterpieces of gold and multi-colored glass.
Important fragments survived from the mosaic floor of the Great Palace of Constantinople which was commissioned during Justinian's reign. In 2003, the remains of a mosaic pavement were discovered under the ruins of the Bizere Monastery near the River Mure in present-day Romania. The panels depict real or fantastic animal, floral, solar and geometric representations. Some archeologists identified that as the floor of an Orthodox church.