Basic principles of administration
1. principle of Hierarchy
a. The members of the organizations are arranged in a definite subordinate – super ordinate hierarchy of line positions ( eg Clas I, II, III and IV). It is also known as the ‘Scalar process’, where in lines of positional authority and responsibility run upward and downward through several levels with a broad base at the bottom and a single head at the top in order to preserve the ‘unity of command’
b. In the effective organization each worker knows who his supervisor is and each supervisor knows whom he is expected to supervise. If a worker is subject to orders from several supervisors (as in case of village development officer), he gets confused, in efficient and irresponsible. In this arrangement the authority of making vital decision is entrusted with a specialized person located at the helm of the organization.
2. Principles of Authority
Effective administration will occur when authority allocated to and individual or group of individuals is sufficient. The authority and the responsibility should be clearly defined and understand by all persons in the organizations. The different types of authorities are given in the following pages.
3. Principles of responsibility with matching authority
The individual should not be burdened only with responsibilities but should also be provided with matching authority. This is more important in a decentralized form of administration. Responsibility without authority is just lie leaving an individual to fight with a tiger without a gun or weapon.
4. Principles of span of control
Span of control is the number of subordinates one has he supervise. In general, the span of control is such as to permit to decision making as it needed. It helps in attaining quality decision. It results in increased effectiveness and efficiency in attaining the organizational objectives. Some of the factors influencing the span of control include
a. the intensity and frequency of the need to see the chief,
b. the age of the agency
c. the magnitude of their problems
d. the professional competence and length of service of the staff
e. the size of the agency
f. the size of the geographic area in which the supervisor must operate
g. the importance of the decisions which the supervisor must make
h. the degree of control that must be exercised
i. the degree of repetitiveness of the work to be done.
5. Principles of communication
There should be two way channel of communication, both vertical and horizontal in the organization. Communication ensures common understanding of organization values and objectives clear and proper assignments of authority and functions are required for success in large operations. Employees want to know what is going on without a broad sharing of information and purpose their morale will be low and the agency’s task will be more difficult.
6. Principles of organizational structure
The organization can no longer remain fixed or static changes in basic objectives, in size of staff, in professional competency, adjustments in programme emphasis, in the nature of institutional relationship within which the organization must operate will have to be made. Similarly the need for long range as well as short range planning of programmer personnel and finances may require many adjustments, in the form of the administrative organizational structures. In short the organizational structure should be subject to continues adaptations as conditions warrant.
Last modified: Friday, 13 January 2012, 6:27 AM