Water soluble vitamins

Human Nutrition 3(3+0)
Lesson 32 : Summary of vitamins

Water soluble vitamins



Deficiency symptoms



Thiamine (vitamin B1 )

  • Coenzyme involved with enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism;
  • Nerve function

Mental confusion, muscle weakness, wasting, oedema, impaired growth.

Pork, liver, whole grains, enriched grain products, peas, meat, legumes.

None known.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

  • Coenzyme involved in energy metabolism

Cracks at corners of mouth, inflammation of mouth and tongue, dermatitis around nose and lips, eyes sensitive to light.

Liver, milk, dark green vegetables, whole and enriched grain products, eggs.

None known.

Niacin (nicotinamide, nicotinic acid)

  • Coenzyme involved in energy metabolism,
  • Prevent breakdown of vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids

Pellagra, diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia.

Liver, fish, poultry, meat, peanuts, whole and enriched grain products.

Abnormal liver function, cramps, nausea, irritability.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)

Coenzyme involved in

  • Protein metabolism
  • Neurotransmitter synthesis
  • Hemoglobin synthesis.

Skin disorders, dermatitis, anemia, irritability, anemia, kidney stones, nausea, sore tongue.

Pork, meats, whole grains and cereals, legumes, green, leafy vegetables.

None known.

Pantothenic acid

  • Coenzyme involved in energy metabolism
  • fat synthesis and fat breakdown

Fatigue, nausea, abdominal cramps, difficulty in sleeping.

Liver, kidney, meats, egg yolk, whole grains, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria.

About half of pantothenic acid is lost in the milling of grains and highly refined foods.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamins)

  • Coenzyme involved in folate metabolism
  • nerve function.

Pernicious anemia, poor nerve function.

Found only in animal foods: meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters, shellfish.

None known.

Folacin (folic acid)

Coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis.

Megaloblastic anemia, inflammation of tongue, diarrhea.

Liver, kidney, dark green leafy vegetables, meats, fish, whole grains, fortified grains and cereals, legumes, citrus fruits.

May mask vitamin B12 deficiency (pernicious anemia).

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Scurvy: Bleeding gums, poor wound healing, pinpoint hemorrhages, edema.

Citrus fruits, guava, amla, strawberries, melon, green pepper, tomatoes, dark green vegetables, potatoes.

Nontoxic under normal conditions; rebound scurvy when high doses discontinued; diarrhea, bloating, cramps; increased incidence of kidney stones.

Last modified: Monday, 13 February 2012, 6:39 AM